Military 0 9 metaphorical 8 move fast 1 move noisily

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Unformatted text preview: ition, naming the synonym of the sense or the context in which the sense appears. Thus senses of the verb query can either be given in the form of a Words from the lexical field of war and their metaphoric potential Word attacks, present sg. 3rd person (183 hits) Literal 42 physical violence 5 military attacked, past tense and past participle (200 random hits out of 2581) 65 physical violence 38 military attacking, participle, (200 random hits out of 763) 54 physical violence 36 military verb total (783 random hits out of 4984) 226 physical violence 127 military attacking, adjective, (175 hits) 29 military 23 physical violence attack, singular noun, (200 random hits out of 6028) 38 physical violence 49 military attacks, plural noun (200 random hits out of 2648) 54 physical violence 63 military noun total (400 out of 8676) 92 physical violence 112 military 209 Metaphorical 35 criticise 30 disease 71 other 45 criticise 7 politics 4 disease 3 eat 38 other 72 criticise 8 work intensively 6 sport 24 other 206 criticise 44 disease 13 sport 167 other 114 sport 3 criticism 6 other 52 criticism 32 disease 15 sport 13 other [1 proper name] 42 criticism 28 disease 8 sport 5 other 94 criticism 60 disease 23 sport 18 other 1 proper name In the case of the noun, the military sense prevails over the ‘physical violence’ sense. The metaphorical sense of ‘criticise’ and the ‘physical violence’ sense have similar frequency. synonymous verb or indicated by the noun describing the context of use. The choice between the synonym and context label is based on space economy. 210 Chapter V The adjectival –ing form is most often used in the sport context (attacking play, attacking or defensive attitude, attacking batsman).8 In the case of all the other word forms the most frequent use is that in the ‘physical violence’ sense. This sense is also the most basic one in terms of the Pragglejaz and embodiment requirements. As the ‘physical violence’ sense is indicative of the HAND-TO-HAND COMBAT domain, the question arises whether the uses of the verb attack, say in the meaning of ‘criticise’, should be considered as exemplifications of the ARGUMENT IS WAR metaphor or perhaps a more concrete ARGUMENT IS A HAND-TOHAND COMBAT metaphor. Of course, to posit a new conceptual metaphor one needs a more complex lexical representation than just one verb use. Szwedek (2006 p.c.) suggested that WAR, being the most salient example of the CONFLICT domain is probably the prototypical source for metaphoric understanding of other concepts within this domain, thus justifying the original Lakoffian formulation of the metaphor. Another factor coming into play here is the fact that in the case of the total sum of nominal uses the military sense predominates. At the same time the frequency of the nouns is higher than that of the verbs. Possibly then, the basic meaning for the lemma is the military sense (the total frequency does not show this as, 5 verb forms, and only two nominal forms were investigated, so that the balance...
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