The basic sense is at the same time the most frequent

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Unformatted text preview: s shy 3 unclear 52 general 11 disease 7 business 7 politics 1 argument 10 Here POLITICS as the target domain is used as an example. The doubts raised at this point would also obtain for any other target domain, be it ARGUMENT, GAME, BUSINESS, DISEASE, etc. Words from the lexical field of war and their metaphoric potential Word fighting, participle (200 random hits out of 2368) Literal 55 military 34 physical violence Other 2 ambiguous fought, past tense and past participle (200 hits out of 2865) 76 military 28 physical violence 2 ambiguous verb total (738 random hits out of 8905) 166 military 137 physical violence 13 ambiguous 7 fight shy of 12 nouns 3 unclear fight, singular noun (200 random hits out of 2293) 104 physical violence 10 military 4 ambiguous fights, plural noun (200 random hits out of 356) 175 physical violence 2 military 2 misspelt flights 2 verbs, erroneously tagged as nouns fight/s, noun total (400 random hits out of 2649) 279 physical violence 12 military 4 ambiguous 2 misspelt 2 verbs fighting, noun (200 random hits out of 1583) 128 military 53 physical violence 1 fighting chance 221 Metaphorical 88 general 7 sport 6 politics 4 disease 2 law 1 fire 1 business 59 general 15 politics 13 sport 4 disease 3 fire 280 general 39 politics 35 sport 24 disease 14 business 4 fire 2 law 1 argument 1 chemistry 45 general 11 argument 8 sport 7 politics 6 disease 4 emotions 1 chemical 12 argument 3 general 2 politics 1 sport 1 disease 48 general 23 argument 9 sport 9 politics 7 disease 4 emotions 1 chemical 12 general 5 sport 1 fire 222 Chapter V As can be seen in Table 5, in the analysed samples the metaphorical uses of the verb fight prevail over the literal uses. As far as the literal senses are concerned, the infinitive, the base form and in particular the third person singular when used in their literal meaning are most often employed in the physical violence sense. Apparently, the past tense and past participle are more common in military contexts than the present tense, as these forms, when used literally, are most often used in their military sense. The joint results for all the verb forms analysed show the predominance of the metaphorical uses; when it comes to the literal uses, the military sense prevails over the physical violence sense. It may support the claim that the use of the verb fight in its metaphorical senses can be an indication of the metaphor X IS WAR. The situation with the noun fight differs considerably from that of the verb. The physical violence sense is clearly most frequently used. The metaphorical uses here amount to about 25% of the analysed examples. The military use is rare. Thus, unlike in the case of the verb, the claim for the basicness of the most human oriented sense and the frequency of this sense reinforce each other. As a result, the metaphoric uses of the noun fight could be considered as representing the conceptual metaphor X IS A HAND-TO-HAND COMBAT rather than X IS WAR. It is interesting to note that another nominal derivative: fighting, behaves in an entirely different way than the noun fight. In this case it is the military sense that dominates. Therefore when used metaphorically, the noun fighting to an even greater exten...
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