Kafli_5___fyrirlestur_1_AH

Kafli 5 patterns in nature minerals fjlgervingar

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Unformatted text preview: Indiana [email protected] Earth: Portrait of a Planet, Ármann Höskuldsson Kafli 5: Patterns in Nature: Minerals 4 Chapter 5 Patterns in Nature: Minerals Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition 2008, by Stephen Marshak © W. W. Norton & Company Að sjá inn í kristalla Binding atóma Með nútíma tækni má sjá einstök atóm. Með nú tæ má sjá einstö ató Geisli af elektrónum er sendur í gegnum kristalgrindina. Geisli elektró Atóm dreifa elektrónum, er ferðast á milli þeirra. Ató elektró Skuggi gefur til kynna atóm uppbyggingu. Skuggi ató Þessi tækni er undirstaða Þessi tæ rafeindarsmásjárinnar. rafeindarsmá sjá Earth: Portrait of a Planet, Ármann Höskuldsson Kafli 5: Patterns in Nature: Minerals Binding frumefna Kafli 5: Patterns in Nature: Minerals Van der Waals kraftar (veik binding) Van dæmi grafít í blýant grafí Samsettar jónir (complex ions) Jónir Samsettar jó (complex ions) Jó myndaðar úr fleiri en einu frumefni og tengjast með samgildri tengingu. Kafli 5: Patterns in Nature: Minerals Fjölgervingar - Polymorphs Sama samsetning en mismunandi kristalgrind. Sama Fjölgervingar draga athyglina að mikilvægi tengja. Fjö mikilvæ Demantur og grafít eru kolefnis fjölgervingar (C). Demantur grafí fjö Demantur – Sterk samgild tengi; hörðust allra steinda. Demantur hö Grafít – Veik Van der Waals tengi; mýkst allra steinda. Grafí Earth: Portrait of a Planet, Ármann Höskuldsson Earth: Portrait of a Planet, Ármann Höskuldsson Málmtenging (metalic bonding) Ytri (metalic bonding) rafeindir allra atóma deilast og ferðast ató frjálst milli atóma. Þess vegna eru frjá ató málmar góðir leiðarar. ó g Samgild tenging (Covalent bonds) Samgild (Covalent Mörg frumefni deila rafeindum og jafna þannig hleðslu sína sí Diamond Diamond Samgild - Covalent. Samgild Covalent. Jóna - Ionic. Ionic. Málm - Metallic. Metallic. Van der Waals. Van Waals. Samsettar jónir – complex ions. Samsettar jó Binding frumefna Jónabinding (...
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