Chapter 8 Evolution & Natural Selection flashcards _ Quizlet

Chapter 8 Evolution & Natural Selection flashcards _...

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Chapter 8 Evolution & Natural Selection Created by LydiaB 44 terms · What Is Life? A Guide To Biology by J. Phalen Chapter 8 Review Questions, Dr. Susan Yoder Adaptation The process by which, as a result of natural selection, a populations organisms become better matched to their environment; also, a specific feature, such as the quills of a porcupine, that makes an organism more fit. Bottleneck A phenomenon by which genetic drift can occur, a sudden reduction in population size that can lead to changes in the allele frequencies of a population. ( An island of mostly bald people gets hit by a tsunami, wiping out most of a population. Soon though, the population is blossoming, again with more bald people.) Evolution A change in allele frequencies of a population. Fitness A relative measure of the reproductive output of an individual with a given phenotype compared with the reproductive output of individuals with alternative phenotypes. Also the number of fertile offspring it reproduces. Founder effect A phenomenon by which genetic drift can occur; the isolation of a small subgroup of a larger population which can lead to changes in the allele frequencies of a population because all the descendants of the smaller group will reflect the allele frequencies of the subgroup, which may be different from those of the larger source population. (10% of an island population is bald. After generations, a majority of the population is now bald) Gene flow A random change in allele frequencies over successive generations, a cause of evolution. Natural Selection A mechanism of evolution that occurs when there is heritable variation for a trait and individuals which one version of the trait have greater reproductive success than individuals with a different version of that trait.
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Population A group of organisms of the same species living in a particular geographic region.
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