5 augcaauuggccaaauuugggccc 3 3

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Unformatted text preview: mentary to one strand of the DNA template DNA template 5’-ATGCAATTGGCCAAATTTGGGCCC-3’ 3’-TACGTTAACCGGTTTAAACCCGGG-5’ rna polym mRNA 5’-AUGCAAUUGGCCAAAUUUGGGCCC-3’ 3’-TACGTTAACCGGTTTAAACCCGGG-5’ Initiation: Promoters • How does RNA polymerase know where a gene begins? – $ subunit (with the two ! subunits) recognizes promoter sequences in the DNA – Promoters are located about 40 base pairs upstream (5’) of the transcription initiation site of a gene • The primary regulatory sequences for gene expression • Promoters control strength of gene expression through regulation of the efficiency of transcriptional initiation Consensus Promoter Sequences seq varies little, common BP found • Consensus sequence: The most commonly encountered bases at each position in a group of conserved sequences • Bacterial promoters have two consensus promoter sequences: – The Pribnow Box, or -10 sequence (10 bp upstream of the initiation site) (sequence TATAAT) l to r – The -35 sequence (TTGACA) – $ binds both of these sequences Consensus Promoter Sequences • Consensus promoter sequences are “cis-acting” factors • “cis” = in the same place • Only have effects if they’re on the same DNA molecule • The proteins that bind to these sequences ($, other DNA-binding proteins) are “trans-acting factors” • “trans” = in a different place • these are diffusible factors, can act on any DNA molecule can move around, ex enz Initiation: Unwinding • RNA polymerase unwinds the helix a small amount and begins to catalyze the production of the complementary mRNA molecule Elongation Not well understood RNA polymerase undergoes a conformational (shape) change Usually releases the $ factor These changes make it unable to bind the promoter sequence, and the polymerase escapes from the promoter Elongation begins Termination of Transcription part of gene itself • Intrinsic termination: • In bacteria, transcr...
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