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Lecture.14.Fall.2013 - Announcements Todays material will...

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Announcements Today’s material will not be on Wednesday’s exam Please don’t approach your TAs for regrades. There is a procedure for regrades, and all must go through me
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Transcription, RNA molecules, and RNA processing October 14, 2013 Transcription (Chapter 13) Introduction: death-cap mushrooms Classes of cellular RNAs The Central Dogma of Molecular Genetics Miller, Hamkalo and Thomas, 1970 - RNA is transcribed from a DNA template The transcription apparatus Transcription in bacteria Initiation and promoters Elongation
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Transcription, RNA molecules, and RNA processing October 14, 2013 Transcription (Chapter 13) Eukaryotic transcription Enhancers Chromatin Structure RNA Molecules and RNA Processing (Chapter 14) Gene Organization Genes and proteins are colinear Eukaryotic genes are interrupted Types of Introns Eukaryotic transcripts are extensively modified mRNA structure Capping Tailing Splicing
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Death Cap Mushrooms “Death Cap” mushrooms ( Amanita phalloides ) are common in California, especially in the San Francisco Bay Area They closely resemble edible mushrooms, especially “straw mushrooms”
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Death Cap Mushrooms Ingestion of a single mushroom is enough to kill an adult human (the death rate for adults is 22%, due to emergency medical treatment) Begins with GI symptoms, which go away...leading the person to think they’re fine
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Death Cap Mushrooms Ends with liver failure and death The toxin, ! -amantin, is an inhibitor of RNA polymerase II, which is required for transcription of all protein-encoding genes in eukaryotes So, you know, transcription is important.
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So, what does the genetic material need to be able to do, again? Store information - large amounts of complicated information - check Replicate with great fidelity - check Be translatable into phenotypic information Instructions
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So, what does the genetic material need to be able to do, again? Store information - large amounts of complicated information Replicate with great fidelity - check Be translatable into phenotypic information Instructions
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The Central Dogma of Molecular Genetics 1. DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) 2. mRNA is translated (via ribosomes and tRNAs) into proteins 3. Proteins carry out most of the biological functions of the cell PROTEIN Replication Transcription Translation
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Transcription Transcription: the process by which messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules are synthesized from a DNA template
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Sidebar: The cellular functions of RNA DNA stores information, but RNA is the nucleic acid workhorse of the cell: Type of RNA Cell Type Function rRNA bacteria and eukaryotes structure of ribosome mRNA bacteria and eukaryotes gene transcripts tRNA bacteria and eukaryotes RNA/protein adapter snRNA eukaryotic mRNA processing snoRNA eukaryotic rRNA processing scRNA eukaryotic varies miRNA eukaryotic inhibits translation siRNA eukaryotic degradation of RNAs piRNA eukaryotic gametogenesis
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RNA Polymerase
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