Lecture.14.Fall.2013

Store information large amounts of complicated

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Unformatted text preview: anscription is important. So, what does the genetic material need to be able to do, again? Store information - large amounts of complicated information - check Replicate with great fidelity - check Be translatable into phenotypic information Instructions So, what does the genetic material need to be able to do, again? Store information - large amounts of complicated information Replicate with great fidelity - check Be translatable into phenotypic information Instructions The Central Dogma of Molecular Genetics 1. DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) 2. mRNA is translated (via ribosomes and tRNAs) into proteins 3. Proteins carry out most of the biological functions of the cell DNA Replication RNA Transcription PROTEIN Translation Transcription • Transcription: the process by which messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules are synthesized from a DNA template Sidebar: The cellular functions of RNA DNA stores information, but RNA is the nucleic acid workhorse of the cell: Type of RNA Cell Type Function rRNA bacteria and eukaryotes structure of ribosome mRNA bacteria and eukaryotes gene transcripts tRNA bacteria and eukaryotes RNA/protein adapter snRNA eukaryotic mRNA processing snoRNA eukaryotic rRNA processing scRNA eukaryotic varies miRNA eukaryotic inhibits translation siRNA eukaryotic degradation of RNAs piRNA eukaryotic gametogenesis RNA Polymerase • Catalyzes the production of 5’ to 3’ phosphodiester bonds • Functional requirements: – DNA template – Four ribonuclotide triphosphates (NTPs) - ATP, GTP, UTP, CTP – No primer is required can synth from scratch RNA Polymerase • E. coli RNA Polymerase has five subunits: !, ", "’, #, $ – ", "’ provide catalytic function – $ factors vary and are regulatory in nature Transcription • Produces a single-stranded RNA molecule complementary to one strand of the DNA template DNA template 5’-ATGCAATTGGCCAAATTTGGGCCC-3’ 3’-TACGTTAACCGGTTTAAACCCGGG-5’ rna polym 3’-TACGTTAACCGGTTTAAACCCGGG-5’ Transcription • Produces a single-stranded RNA molecule comple...
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This document was uploaded on 02/25/2014.

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