Lecture.15.Fall.2013(1)

tropomyosin tropomyosin is an actin binding protein

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Unformatted text preview: alternatively spliced Example: !-tropomyosin !-tropomyosin is an actin-binding protein important for muscle contraction (among other things) It is extensively alternatively spliced (but not the “winner” by a long shot) We will be revisiting the topics of alternative splicing, promoters, and enhancers when we discuss control of eukaryotic gene expression next week. RNA editing • The nucleotide sequence of a transcript can be changed after transcription • First identified in 1986 - mRNA coding sequences are frequently different from the nuclear genes encoding them • RNA editing has been found in transcripts for all types of RNA in a wide variety of organisms RNA editing • Two basic types of RNA editing: – Insertion/deletion editing: Uracil bases are added or deleted from the RNA • Mediated by guide RNAs (gRNA) - template RNAs that are complementary to the edited sequence RNA editing • Two basic types of RNA editing: – Substitution editing (one nucleotide exchanged for another) • A to I substitutions are the most well-known • mediated by the enzyme ADAR (Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA) RNA editing – RNA editing is a vital aspect of gene expression and regulation in those transcripts where it occurs – ADAR mutant mice die due to nonfunctional neurotransmitter receptors that did not undergo proper mRNA editing before translation tRNA structure and processing tRNAs (“transfer RNAs”) are the adapter between the language of nucleic acids and th...
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