Example phosphorylation addition of a phosphate group

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Unformatted text preview: gulating the stability of the transcript are often found here (more stable transcripts can be translated more times) Post-translational modifications Changes made to proteins that alter their activity Acetylation of histones is an example Phosphorylation (addition of a phosphate group) is a very common regulatory post-translational modification Can activate or deactivate a protein, depending on the protein, and the location of the phosphorylation • Allows for rapid responses to environmental signals – Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation are much faster than transcription and translation Summary • Eukaryotes can regulate gene expression at many different levels – Transcriptional, mRNA modification, translational, posttranslational • These are only a few examples - there are others, at every level of regulation Introduction: A fly without a heart • A fruit fly’s heart is a simple openended tube • rhythmically contracts to pump fluid through the body cavity • tinman flies never develop a heart and die at early embryonic stages. Introduction: A fly without a heart • tinman encodes a transcription factor • an activator • turns on expression of genes essential for heart development • In tinman mutants, the transcription factor is not produced • the heart never develops The human tinman homolog • 1 in every 125 babies has a congenital heart defect • 1990s: Christine and Jonathan Seidman identified families: • congenital heart defects were segregating with an autosomal dominant pattern • Performed linkage analysis to map and identify the mutated gene The human tinman homolog • The gene responsible for the heart defects in one family was located on chromosome 5... • In a region containing a ge...
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This document was uploaded on 02/25/2014.

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