Chapter 8 mood disorders - Chapter 8 mood disorders Two key...

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Chapter 8 mood disorders Two key emotions : Depression Low, sad state in which life seems dark and its challenges overwhelming Mania State of breathless euphoria or frenzied energy Others experience periods of mania that alternate with periods of depression This pattern is called bipolar disorder Unipolar Depression No mania, just depression Mood returns to normal when depression lifts bring severe and long-lasting psychological pain that may intensify as time goes by Around 8% of adults in the U.S. suffer from severe unipolar depression in any given year As many as 5% suffer from mild forms Around 19% of all adults experience unipolar depression at some time in their lives The prevalence is similar in Canada, England, France, and many other countries The rate of depression is higher among poor people than wealthier people People of any age may suffer from unipolar depression Women are at least twice as likely as men to experience severe unipolar depression Lifetime prevalence: 26% of women vs. 12% of men Among children, the prevalence is similar among boys and girls Approximately 85% of people with unipolar depression recover, some without treatment Around 40% will experience another episode later in their lives Symptoms may vary from person to person Five main areas of functioning may be affected: Emotional symptoms Feeling “miserable,” “empty,” “humiliated” Motivational symptoms Lacking drive, initiative, spontaneity Between 6% and 15% of those with severe depression die by suicide Behavioral symptoms Less active, less productive Cognitive symptoms Hold negative views of themselves Blame themselves for unfortunate events Pessimistic Physical symptoms
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Headaches, dizzy spells, general pain Diagnosing unipolar depression Criteria 1: Major depressive episode Marked by five or more symptoms lasting two or more weeks In extreme cases, symptoms are psychotic, including Hallucinations Delusions Criteria 2: No history of mania Two diagnoses to consider: Major depressive disorder Criteria 1 and 2 are met Dysthymic disorder Symptoms are “mild but chronic” Depression is longer lasting but less disabling Consistent symptoms for at least two years When dysthymic disorder leads to major depressive disorder, the sequence is called “double depression” What causes unipolar depression Stress may be a trigger for depression People with depression experience a greater number of stressful life events during the month just before the onset of their symptoms biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors What causes unipolar depression BIOLOGICAL VIEW Genetic factors Family pedigree, twin, adoption, and molecular biology gene studies suggest that some people inherit a biological predisposition Twin studies demonstrate a strong genetic component:
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