Chapter 12 Substance related disorders

Chapter 12 Substance related disorders - Chapter 12...

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Chapter 12 Substance related disorders What is a drug o Any substance other than food that affects our bodies or minds o Need not be a medicine or illegal o Current language uses the term “substance” rather than “drug” to overtly include alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine Substances may cause temporary changes in behavior, emotion, or thought o May result in substance intoxication - a temporary state of poor judgment, mood changes irritability, slurred speech, and poor coordination o Some substances such as LSD may produce a particular form of intoxication, sometimes called hallucinosis, which consists of perceptual distortions and hallucinations Substance abuse: a pattern of behavior in which a person relies on a drug excessively and chronically, damaging relationships, affecting work functioning, and/or putting self or others in danger Substance dependence: a more advanced pattern of use in which a person abuses a drug and centers his or her life around it o Also called “addiction” o May include tolerance (need increasing doses to get an effect) and withdrawal (unpleasant and dangerous symptoms when substance use is stopped or cut down) About 9% of all teens and adults in the U.S. display substance abuse or dependence Depressants o slow the activity of the central nervous system (CNS) Reduce tension and inhibitions May interfere with judgment, motor activity, and concentration o Three most widely used depressants: Alcohol Binge drinking – when people consume more than 5 drinks on one occasion All alcoholic beverages contain ethyl alcohol o It is absorbed into the blood through the stomach lining and takes effect in the bloodstream and CNS Short-term: alcohol blocks messages between neurons Alcohol helps GABA (an inhibitory messenger) shut down neurons and relax the drinker The first brain area affected is that which controls judgment and inhibition Next affected are additional areas in the CNS, leaving the drinker even less able to make sound judgments, speak clearly, and remember well Motor difficulties increase as drinking continues, and reaction times slow
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The extent of the effect of ethyl alcohol is determined by its concentration (proportion) in the blood BAC Gender effects BAC o Women have less alcohol dehydrogenase, an enzyme in the stomach that metabolizes alcohol before it enters the blood BAC = 0.06: Relaxation and comfort BAC = 0.09: Intoxication BAC > 0.55: Death The average rate of this metabolism is 25% of an ounce per hour o You can’t increase the speed of this process! Alcohol abuse o large amounts regularly and rely on it to enable them to do things that would otherwise make them anxious o Eventually the drinking interferes with social behavior and the ability to think and work o Individual patterns of alcohol abuse vary Alcohol dependence o Build tolerance and have to drink more for same effect o They may experience withdrawal, including nausea and
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