Chap 2 Rhythm Rhythm is the term for the orderly flow of sound through time. Listen to the following example: Tones for Elvin Jones John McLaughlin All music has rhythm, but not all music has a beat. Rhythm usually includes beat, meter and tempo. Beat The beat is one aspect of rhythm. It is the pulse to which you march or dance. Beats are the way music is measured. Beats are usually stead (Tapping your foot is tapping to the beat of a piece of music) Not all music has a beat! Deum Verum (Gregorian Chant) has no beat. Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima for 52 strings by Krzysztof Penderecki has no beat. Meter Meter is the pattern of the beats (not the notes) The pattern is created when certain beats are emphasized consistently. ၂拍ᇗၻThe 1 in the examples are called down beats. Most patterns of beats occur in two, three or fours. “Take five 3/2 Money ¾“ If a piece of music has no beat, it also has no meter; it is unmetered or non-metrical. A meter signature (2 numbers) will be placed at the beginning of a piece of music. Most music keeps the same meter for the entire piece, but some music changes meter. Tempo Tempo is the term for the speed of the beats. There are two ways to show the tempo of a piece of music. First, tempo was indicated by a general term, usually a word in Italian. Tempo can also be indicated by a metronome marking the number of beats per minute. M.M. stands for Maelzel’s Metronome.
Notation of Rhythm Notes last for a certain number or portions of beats. The length of notes follows a 2:1 ratio. h+h =w q+q=h e+e=q x+x=e Meter is indicated in notation by vertical lines (bar lines) They create units called measures. The meter signature or time signature is two numbers aligned vertically. They tell the number of units in a measure (upper #) and the type of note that equals one unit (lower #). Bottom # always multiple of two. Two special symbols: c=4/4 (common time) C=2/2 (CUT TIME) George Bizet (1838-1875) Most famous work: The Opera Carmen (not well received at the time) Child prodigy: similar to Mozart and Mendelsson. Enters Paris Conversation at 9 Writes symphony in C at age of 17 Awards: Prix de Rome at 19 Farandole from L’Arlesienne, Suite no.2 A farandole is a circle dance. It’s march-like quality. “March de Turenne” “March of the Three Kings” in English. The steady beat. The two- of four- beat meter. Where the tempo changes and becomes faster. Synopation Synopation happens when The rhythmic emphasis occurs where it is not expected or does not occur where it is expected. It occurs on what is called on off-beat. Ex) Stolen Moments by Oliver Nelson.
Polyrhythm Polyrhythm occurs when two or more rhythmic patterns are performed at the same time. They are heard in some twentieth-century music and are a feature of African music.
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- Spring '08
- Music, Musical instrument