Unit 4: Week 3 - Ch 6 Lecture Notes Chapter 6 Annotated Outline I. The Trials of War, 1776–1778 A. War in the North 1. Few observers thought that the rebels stood a chance of defeating the British; Great Britain had more people and more money with which to fight. 3 Primary Tasks required for Independence • A political/ideological transition was needed to form a consensus out of a people disposed to loyal resistance. • Thomas Paine was highly instrumental in this cause. Using arguments like, “The will of the Almighty expressly disapproves of government by kings,” Paine used his knowledge that Americans loved their Bible. • Paine was a Deist who often attacked what he called Christianity’s “priestcraft and sophistry.” • But he & others publicly argued that “religion alone could provide the virtue necessary to preserve republican government. • Also, an appeal to God was an appeal to a higher authority than the King Loyalists, Patriots, & Neutrals • Geographically dependent • 1/5th of colonists remained loyal • 2/5ths active patriots • 2/5ths the ‘Great unwashed masses’ and remained uncommitted to either side. • Over the course of the war, the GUM choose sides • The position of intolerance is understandable, but unfortunate. • The Loyalists were placed in the terrible position of having to reject what they must have seen as the legal authority, or to deny their homeland. • Loyalism led to a dimension of intolerance in America that continues to this day. 2. Few Indians supported the rebels; they were opposed to the expansion of white settlement. 3. The British were seasoned troops, and the Americans were militarily weak. 4. Prime Minister North assembled a large invasion force and selected General William Howe to lead it; North ordered Howe to capture New York City and seize control of the Hudson River in order to isolate the radical Patriots in New England from the other colonies.
5. General William Howe and his 32,000 British troops landed outside New York City in July 1776, just as the Continental Congress was declaring independence in Philadelphia. Battle of Long Island 6. Outgunned and outmaneuvered, the Continental army retreated across the Hudson to New Jersey, then across the Delaware River to Philadelphia. New Jersey 7. The British halted their campaign for the winter months, which allowed the Continental army a few minor triumphs that still could not mask British military superiority. Battle of Trenton Battle of Princeton B. Armies and Strategies 1. General Howe’s military strategy was one of winning the surrender of opposing forces, rather than destroying them; this tactic failed to nip the rebellion in the bud. 2. General Washington’s strategy was to draw the British away from the seacoast, extending their lines of supply and draining their morale in a war of attrition.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 10 pages?
- Spring '14
- The American, Continental Army