Unit 10: Week 7 - Ch 13 Lecture NotesI. Manifest Destiny: South and NorthA. The Independence of Texas1. The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 guaranteed Spanish sovereignty over Texas.2. After winning independence from Spain in 1821, the Mexican government, short on population and cash for settling the region, encouraged settlement by Mexicans and by migrants from the United States.3. As the Mexican government asserted greater political control over Texas in the mid-1830s, the Americans split into two groups: the “peace party,” led by Stephen Austin, wanted more autonomy for the province, and the “war party” wanted independence from Mexico.4. After provoking a rebellion, the war party proclaimed the independence of Texas on March 2, 1836, and adopted a constitution legalizing slavery.5. Vowing to put down the rebellion, Santa Anna’s army wiped out the war party’s rebel garrison that was defending the Alamo and then captured Goliad.6. Hundreds of American adventurers influenced by press reports and lured by offers of land grants flocked to Texas to join the rebel army. Led by General Sam Houston, the war party routed the Mexicans in the Battle of San Jacinto.7. The Mexican government abandoned efforts to reconquer Texas, but refused to accept its status as an independent republic.8. Texans quickly voted for annexation to the United States, but Presidents Jackson and Van Buren refused to act on the issue, knowing that adding Texas as a slave state would divide the Democratic Party and the nation and almost certainly lead to war with Mexico.B. The Push to the Pacific1. In 1845 John L. O’Sullivan coined the phrase Manifest Destiny; he felt that Americans had a right to develop the entire continent as they saw fit, which implied a sense of cultural and racial superiority.2. The Oregon country stretched along the Pacific coast from the border with Mexican California to the border with Russian Alaska and was claimed by both Great Britain and the United States.3. “Oregon fever” raged in 1843 as thousands, lured by reports of fine harbors, mild climate, and fertile soil, journeyed for months across the continent to the Willamette Valley.4. By 1860 about 350,000 Americans had braved the Oregon Trail; many died en route from disease and exposure, although relatively few died from Indian attacks.5. Some pioneers left the Oregon Trail and traveled south along the California Trail, settling along the Sacramento River in the Mexican province of California.6. To promote California’s development, the Mexican government took over the California missions and liberated the 20,000 Indians who worked on them, many of whom intermarried with mestizos and worked as laborers and cowboys on large cattle ranches.7. The rise of cattle ranching created a new society and economy as agents from New England firms assimilated to Mexican life and married into the families of the Californios.