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Bio notes 9 - Notes Topic The Musculo-Skeletal System...

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Topic: The Musculo-Skeletal System Reading: Chapter 39 Main concepts : Muscles and the skeleton work together to produce locomotion. Muscles contain contractile fibers that cause them to contract; the skeleton provides support for the body and a place to anchor muscles that cause movement. Three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal: striated muscle capable of voluntary movement. Smooth: non-striated muscle not directly under conscious control. Cardiac: striated muscle cells connected end-to-end, capable of electrical coordination. Muscle cells (fibers) contain myofibrils. Myofibrils contain two types of protein fibers: “thick,” made up of strands of myosin protein, and “thin,” made up of strands of actin protein with tropomysin and troponin proteins. Myosin strands have small “heads” that literally crawl along the actin strands. This is the basis of muscle contraction. Each movement of the myosin “head” requires one ATP, which is why muscles use up a lot of the body’s ATP. This function of muscular movement requires the input of calcium ions. Two types of muscle fibers: Slow-twitch: Slow to contract. Contain abundant mitochondria, and store myoglobin (an oxygen-storing protein similar to hemoglobin), which make these fibers dark. They are useful for endurance activities, such as long-distance running. “Dark meat” on a turkey. Fast-twitch: Contract quickly. These have fewer mitochondria and less blood supply, but make better use of glycolysis to operate in low oxygen conditions. These cells are lighter in color, and are useful for activities requiring a burst of energy, such as sprinting or weight lifting. “White meat” on a turkey.
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