Bio notes 10 - Notes Topic Circulatory system Biology 103...

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Topic: Circulatory system Reading: Chapter 32 Main concepts : The main features of the animal circulatory system are: fluid (blood), channels through which the fluid moves (vessels such as arteries and veins), and a pump (the heart). Functions of blood: Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide Transport of waste products Distribution of hormones and nutrients Regulation of body temperature Protection against infection and disease Components of blood: Plasma is made up of water, plus proteins such as albumin, globulins, fibrinogens. Red blood cells make up 99% of the cells in the blood. Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, which transports oxygen. White blood cells are part of the immune system, and patrol the blood stream and body tissues, searching for invaders. Platelets are cell fragments that play a role in clot formation. In an open circulatory system, as seen in arthropods, a heart circulates fluid within an open body cavity. In a closed circulatory system, as seen in vertebrates, a heart circulates blood in a closed loop made up of blood vessels. Three types of blood vessels: Arteries move blood away from the heart. Arteries divide into smaller arterioles. Veins carry blood toward the heart. Small venules join to become veins. The smallest blood vessels are capillaries. It is in the capillary bed that materials such as gases and nutrients are exchanged. The two-chambered heart in fish moves the blood, but does not separate oxygenated from deoxygenated blood. The three-chambered heart in amphibians and reptiles creates some separation of the blood (the crocodile in particular has a partially-chambered ventricle). The four-chambered heart in mammals keeps
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