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Bio notes 2 - Notes Biology 103 Dr Karen Bledsoe...

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Topic: Plant Reproduction and Development Reading: Chapter 43 Note: If you have not take Biology 102, you should consult Chapter 11 to understand the processes of mitosis (normal cell division) and meiosis (reduction division). You should also understand the terms haploid and diploid . You can find notes to this chapter on the Biology 102 page of my website. Main concepts : Plants reproduce both sexually (through union of pollen and ovule) and asexually (self-cloning by runners, offshoots, etc.). Sexual reproduction involves the alternation of generations: a life cycle with diploid and haploid phases (diploid = having two sets of chromosomes in each cell, one set from each parent; haploid = having only a single set of chromosomes in each cell). Plants of any one species have two distinct forms: the haploid form (gametophyte) and diploid form (sporophyte). Diploid sporophytes produce haploid spores through meiosis (reduction division). Haploid gametophytes grow from the haploid spores. Gametophytes produce haploid gametes through mitosis. The two phases of the alternation of generations are most clear in ferns, where the gametophyte and sporophyte phases are independent organisms. In algaes (which are classified with the protists), the gametophyte phase is most prominent and the sporophyte is very reduced. In coniferous trees and the flowering plants, the sporophyte is most prominent, while the gametophyte is reduced to a few cells. Comparison of plant and animal reproduction: Plant reproduction Animal reproduction Life cycle Alternation of generations in all plants No alternation of generations Gametes Haploid gametes Haploid gametes Spores Haploid spores No spores Gametes made by
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