Topic: Homeostasis and organization in animalsReading: Chapter 31Main concepts: •Living things have systems to help maintain an internal environment: stable pH, blood volume, temperature, etc.•Homeostasis is maintained by a complex interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine (hormone-producing) system, which affect and regulate other body systems.•Negative feedback loops are designed to keep the internal environment stable. Example: internal temperature is regulated in a system similar to a thermostat. If internal temperature is too low, metabolism may be increased or shivering may help raise the temperature. If internal temperature is too high, we sweat to cool off.•Positive feedback loops increase an effect to reach a conclusion. Example: During labor, the hormone oxytocin increases, causing uterine contractions, which stimulates more oxytocin production, until contractions are hard enough for birth to occur.
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