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(0.002) Notes: Standard errors adjusted for student-level clustering (in cases of multiple
observations per student) are in parentheses. Regressions control for unique name, sex
and birth order. Grade-point average and gifted regressions also control for mathematics
test scores. 30 Fortin – Econ 560 Lecture 4B 3. Ethnic Differences and Issues with Immigrants’ Outcomes Ethnicity and religion are other sources of differences across individuals that can
lead to discrimination in labour market outcomes. In Canada, the differences in labour market outcomes of English and French
speakers are particularly salients. Albouy (2008) finds that the wage differential between Francophone and
Anglophone men from 1970 to 2000 fell by 10 points Canada-wide.
o Over half of the reduction in the Canadian Francophone wage gap is
explained by rising Francophone education levels.
o The decline in the gap was 25 percentage points within Quebec, largely
because the wages of Quebec Anglophones fell by 15 points relative to
other Canadian Anglophones. D. Albouy (2008) 0
-.25 -.2 Mean Log Wage Difference .05 .1 .15 1218 1970 1980 1985
Year Francophone Wage Gap in Canada 1990 1995 2000 omitted gap in Anglo outside
Quebec Francophone Wage Gap in Quebec
Francophone Wage Gap outside Quebec
Quebec Wage Gap for Anglophones
FIGURE 1 Mean hourly wage gap between groups 2.2. The distribution of wage differences
We can examine changes in the Francophone and Quebec gaps across the wage
distribution by looking at the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles, graphed in figure 2.
The patterns are similar to that of mean wages, with some interesting departures. 9
Both in Canada and in Quebec, the Francophone gap was larger at the upper
9 Although percentile gaps cannot be decomposed linearly the way a mean gap can, it still holds
that the Canadian Francophone gap is roughly the sum of the Francophone Quebec gap and the
Quebec gap for Anglophones. Fortin – Econ 560 Lecture 4B Oreoupoulos (2009/2011) performed a field experiment in the spirit of Bertrand
and Mullainathan sending fake resumes to potential employers in the Toronto (as
well as Vancouver and Montreal) area and found
1. Interview request rates for English-named applicants with Canadian education
and experience were more than three times higher compared to resumes with
Chinese, Indian, or Pakistani names with foreign education and experience (5
percent versus 16 percent), but were no different compared to foreign
applicants from Britain.
2. Employers valued experience acquired in Canada much more than if acquired
in a foreign country. Changing foreign resumes to include only experience from
Canada raised callback rates to 11 percent.
3. Among resumes listing 4 to 6 years of Canadian experience, whether an
applicant’s degree was from Canada or not, or whether the applicant obtained
additional Canadian educatio...
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