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*** −0.001 (0.908) −0.026 (0.560) 0.077
** −0.246* (0.065)
−0.196** (0.019) (0.010)
Coefﬁcients displayed are changes in the probability of entering the tournament for a one unit change in the independent variable; p values are given in parentheses. All models include a dummy variable
equal to one if the subject played the RC tournament round before the WTA tournament round. All models with risk variables also include a dummy equal to one if risk attitudes were irrational.
Coefﬁcient is signiﬁcantly different from zero at the 0.10 level.
Coefﬁcient is signiﬁcantly different from zero at the 0.05 level.
Coefﬁcient is signiﬁcantly different from zero at the 0.01 level. L. Kamas, A. Preston / Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 83 (2012) 82–97 Table 8
Probits – choice to compete in winner-take-all tournament by major.a Fortin – Econ 560 Lecture 4B Differences in negotiation propensities/skills could lead to differences in pay for the
very same job. Bowles et al (2005, 2007) study gender differences in the propensity to negotiate Women are less likely to initiate negotiations Women’s performance in negotiation improves when they are negotiating for
someone else (not themselves), while men’s performance does not change Women who negotiate are perceived more negatively than men who negotiate Summary of the psychological evidence from laboratory experiments: Risk Aversion: Evidence that women are more risk averse Overconfidence: While both men and women are overconfident, men tend to be
substantially more overconfident Competitive Behavior: Women perform more poorly in competitive environments
and shy away from such environments Negotiation: Women negotiate less and are less likely to ask (and are perceived
more negatively than men when they do) Fortin – Econ 560 Lecture 4B 2.3. Racial Differences in Pre-Market Characteristics and Human Capital The study of racial differences in labour market outcomes is dominated by the study
of the relative outcomes of African-American, not doubt because of the sizeable
relative population weight (about 12 percent) in the United States, but also because of
their dire prospects in terms of other outcomes such as teen pregnancy, rates of
incarceration, lower longevity, etc. . In Canada, African (and Caribbean) descent often carries the same wage penalty as in
the US, but is overshadowed by the wage penalty associated with Aboriginals
ethnicity (Aydemir and Sweetman, 2004). An important study of racial differences in wages is that of Neal and Johnson (1996).
They use the NLSY-79, a longitudinal survey of the 1957-1965 birth cohorts which
contains information about AFQT (Armed Forces Qualification Test) scores, to show
that much of the wage gap between blacks and whites is due to differences at the
point of labour market entry in the types of basic skills measured by AFQT. Source: State of Working America, Economic Policy Institute Figure 1
Western & Percentage of Men Aged Twenty to Thirty-Four in Prison or Jail, by Race/Ethnicity and EducaBecky Pettit tion, 1980 and 2008
incarceration Source: Becky Pettit, Bryan Sykes, and Bruce Western, “Technical Report on...
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