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Immigrants and Ethnic Differences

A similar differential between the female male hourly

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Unformatted text preview: e. A similar differential between the female/ male hourly wage ratio and the weekly earnings ratio, of about 5 to 6 percentage points, is reported by O’Neill (2003) using American data. This is due to the fact that even when women work full-time they work fewer hours than men.19 Interestingly, the substantial earning gains of women relative to men have not been achieved at the expense of increasing inequality among women. Source: Fortin and Schirle (2006) Figure 11.2 Female/male ratio of median earnings note: Calculated using the SCF (individuals aged 15 and over) 1981-82 and 1984-97. The data point presented for 1983 is an average of 1982 and 1984. Sample selection is described in text. 3grn&keslmn7-12.p65 316 4/18/2006, 7:20 PM Ratio of women’s men’s earnings rising Between 1984 -2008, the gender wage gap narrowed by 9.6 percentage points or in relative terms, by 13% 1 Based on average HOURLY wages of ALL workers 0.9 0.8 Based on average ANNUAL earnings of FULL-YEAR FULLTIME workers percent 0.7 0.6 Based on average ANNUAL earnings of ALL workers 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 1981 1986 Source: Drolet (2010) 1988 1990 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Fortin – Econ 560 Lecture 4B 2.2. Gender Differences in Pre-Market Characteristics and Human Capital Gender differences in basic skills, as measured by AFTQ scores for example, are relatively minor by comparison with racial differences, which are have been to account for a substantial fraction of the racial pay gap (Neil and Johnson, 1996). Gender differentials in the level of educational attainment have considerably narrowed following the “Pill Revolution”. Women are now o less likely to be high school drop-outs than men, o more likely to hold a baccalaureate degree o closing the gap on post-graduate education Yet there are sizeable gender differences in choices of college majors. Brown and Corcoran (1997) and Black, Haviland, Sanders and Taylor (2004) study the impact of gender differences in college majors on the gender pay gap among the highly educated. o Brown and Corcoran use the NLS72 and find that a substantial but not overwhelming share of the gender gap in accounted for by these differences. Source: Goldin (2006) Figure 1 College Graduation Rates (by 35 years) for Men and Women: Cohorts Born from 1876 to 1975 0.4 Vietnam War 0.3 M ales 0.2 Females 0.1 0.0 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 Birth Year Sources: 1940 to 2000 Census of Population Integrated Public Use Micro-data Samples (IPUMS). Notes: The figure plots the fraction of four-year college graduates by birth cohort and sex adjusted to 35 years of age for the U.S. born. College graduates are those with 16 or more completed years of schooling for the 1940 to 1980 samples and those with a bachelor’s degree or higher in the 1990 to 2000 samples. The log of the college graduation rate for a birth cohort-year cell is the dependent variable in the age-adjustment regressions that include a full set of birthcohort dummies and a quartic in age as covariates. The age-adjustment re...
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