Immigrants and Ethnic Differences

Because of interruptions for family reasons o men

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Unformatted text preview: rce attachment explains a substantial part of the gender pay gap. Because of interruptions for family reasons, o men tend to acquire more human capital o the experience gap widens during child-raising years as women’s labour market skills depreciate o these foreseen interruptions may lead women to specialize in fields where depreciation is less rapid (e.g. history rather than computer science) or in which skills can be restored more quickly. Source: Blau, Ferber and Winkler (2002) Fortin – Econ 560 Lecture 4B Indeed, many studies (O’Neil and Polachek, 1980; Blau and Kahn, 1997) have found that changes in the level of actual (as opposed to potential) labour market experience of women has been the most important contributing factor to the narrowing of the gender pay gap. Light and Ureta (1995) using detailed measures of the fraction of time worked in each of the years from a women’s career, as well as dummies for labour market interruptions find the timing of labour market interruptions also matters. While long labour market interruptions may lead to some substantial wage losses, the case of job mobility – quitting to take another job- may be something different. Altonji and Paxson (1992) find that women’s job mobility is strongly linked to hours changes, which play a larger role in women’s job choices than men’s for whom higher wages may be more important. Over the course of a career, this may play a larger role. Fortin – Econ 560 Lecture 4B Indeed, considering the role played by expectations of future earnings in the gender pay gap, Breen and Garcia (2002) find that women’s fail to predict the substantial increase in the gender gap that occur over the course of their careers. Women’s greater household responsibilities have also been said to lead to higher absenteeism, although annual absenteeism (excluding maternity leave) for full-time employees is only slightly higher for women at 10.9 days than for men at 8 days (Akyeampong 2005). Recent studies have also suggested that gender differences in job related tastes and traits may be implicated not only in average gender gap effect, but perhaps in glass ceiling effects such as o Gender differences in overconfidence and competitiveness o Gender differences in working under pressure (Paserman, 2007) o Gender differences in attitudes towards risk and client service (Green, Jegadeesh, and Tang, 2007) o Gender differences in the importance of “money” and “being useful to others and society” (Fortin, 2008) Fortin – Econ 560 Lecture 4B Explanations for Glass Ceiling Effects? Men are more overconfident than women. This could be related to (cause?) gender differences in risk aversion and competitive behavior. Soll and Klayman (2004) ask participants to provide high and low estimates such that they were X percent sure that the correct answer for a given question lay between them. Both men and women were overconfident (their intervals were too small) but men were significantly more so. Niederle and Vesterlund (2007) show while both men and women demonstrate overconfidence, men are substantially more overconfident on their relative perfo...
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