Immigrants and Ethnic Differences

Fryer and levitt 2006 looks for whether genetic

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Unformatted text preview: arch has tried to detect black-white differences earlier and earlier in life or to account for differences in school quality. Fryer and Levitt (2006) looks for whether genetic differences account for the intelligence gap across the races. Using a newly available nationally representative data set that includes a test of mental function for children aged eight to twelve months, they find only minor racial differences in test outcomes (0.06 standard deviation units in the raw data) between Blacks and Whites that disappear with the inclusion of a limited set of controls. Almond, Hoynes, and Whitmore Schanzenbach (2008) go even further by looking at fetal origins. They find that pregnancies exposed to the Food Stamps Program rollout three months prior to birth yielded deliveries with increased birth weight, with the largest gains at the lowest birth weights. They conclude that the sizeable increase in income from Food Stamp benefits improved birth outcomes for both whites and African Americans, with larger impacts for births to African American mothers. Source: Altonji and Pierret (2001) 330 QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS TABLE I THE EFFECTS OF STANDARDIZED AFQT AND SCHOOLING ON WAGES Dependent Variable: Log Wage; OLS estimates (standard errors). Panel 1—Experience measure: potential experience Model: (a) Education (b) Black (c) Standardized AFQT (d) Education experience/10 (e) Standardized AFQT experience/10 (f) Black experience/10 R2 (1) (2) (3) (4) 0.0586 (0.0118) 0.1565 (0.0256) 0.0834 (0.0144) 0.0032 (0.0094) 0.0829 (0.0150) 0.1553 (0.0256) 0.0060 (0.0360) 0.0234 (0.0123) 0.0752 (0.0286) 0.0638 (0.0120) 0.0001 (0.0621) 0.0831 (0.0144) 0.0068 (0.0095) 0.0785 (0.0153) 0.0565 (0.0723) 0.0221 (0.0421) 0.0193 (0.0127) 0.0515 (0.0343) 0.0834 (0.0581) 0.2873 0.2861 0.2870 0.1315 (0.0482) 0.2870 Panel 2—Experience measure: actual experience instrumented by potential experience Model: (a) Education (b) Black (c) Standardized AFQT (d) Education experience/10 (e) Standardized AFQT experience/10 (f) Black experience/10 R2 (1) (2) (3) (4) 0.0836 (0.0208) 0.1310 (0.0261) 0.0925 (0.0143) 0.0539 (0.0235) 0.1218 (0.0243) 0.1306 (0.0260) 0.0361 (0.0482) 0.0952 (0.0276) 0.1407 (0.0514) 0.0969 (0.0206) 0.0972 (0.0851) 0.0881 (0.0143) 0.0665 (0.0234) 0.1170 (0.0248) 0.0178 (0.1029) 0.0062 (0.0572) 0.0889 (0.0283) 0.0913 (0.0627) 0.1739 (0.1184) 0.3064 0.3056 0.3063 0.2670 (0.0968) 0.3061 Experience is modeled with a cubic polynomial. All equations control for year effects, education interacted with a cubic time trend, Black interacted with a cubic time trend, AFQT interacted with a cubic time trend, two-digit occupation at first job, and urban residence. For these time trends, the base year is 1992. For the model in Panel 1 column (1) the coefficient on AFQT and Black are .0312 and .1006, respectively, when evaluated for 1983. In Panel 2 the instrumental variables are the corresponding terms involving potential experience and the other variables in the model. Standard errors are White...
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This document was uploaded on 02/26/2014 for the course ECON 560 at The University of British Columbia.

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