Immigrants and Ethnic Differences

If it is a female she shall be valued at thirty

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Unformatted text preview: be valued at thirty shekels.” Leviticus 27:1–4 famous 0.60 Millicent Fawcett, wrote the following story in the Economic Journal in 1918, related to the tunic maker, John Jones, who became ill but was allowed by the firm to continue his work at home. As his illness progressed, his wife took over the work and eventually did it all until his death. ‘When, however, it became quite clear, John Jones being dead and buried, that it could not be his work, Mrs. Jones was obliged to own that it was hers, and the price paid for it by the firm was immediately reduced to two-thirds of that amount paid when it was supposed to be her husband’s’ (1). little better 0.66 Fortin – Econ 560 Lecture 4B There is also the statement made by an Ontario judge in an equal pay case in 1968 (Beckett vs Sault Ste Marie Police Commission, cited in Gunderson 1975, 140): ‘He being a married man with a family to maintain and support was paid at a rate somewhat higher than [the plaintiff] who was single and has no family obligations whatsoever (635) . . . [The plaintiff] was fully aware of the salary she had agreed on (640) . . . She is not being discriminated against by the fact that she receives a different wage, different from male constables, for that fact of difference is in accord with every rule of economics, civilisation, family life and common sense . . . this female member of the force is undermining the moral of the force. She is a menace to its esprit de corps’ (641). 310 AEA PAPERS AND PROCEEDINGS FIGURE 1. TRENDS IN FEMALE-TO-MALE RATIOS OF MEDIAN ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FULL-TIME YEAR-ROUND WORKERS AND HOURLY WAGE RATES Source: O'Neill (2003), United States can only be acquired on the job. In addition, anticipation of child-related work interruptions and the need to coordinate home responsibilities with market work are likely to in uence choice of occupation and type of rm. One can argue whether the source of these gender role differences is a form of discrimination rather than an outcome of biological and other deeply rooted psychological and cultural factors. However, by the time they are old enough to make choices, many women make different choices than men regarding the extent of career attachment. Current data continue to show the strong effect of the presence of children, particularly young children, on work participation and on hours of work among those who do work. In March 2001, at ages 25– 44, the prime period for career development, 34 percent of women with children under the age of six were out of the labor force, compared to 16 percent of women without children. Thirty percent of employed mothers worked part-time, compared to 11 percent of women with no children. Among men, however, the presence of children is associated with an increase in work involvement. Only 4 percent of men with children under the age of six are out of the labor force, and among employed fathers only 2 percent work part-time. The expectation of withdrawals from the labor force and the need to work fewer hours during the week are likely to in uence the type of occupations that women train for and ultimately pursue. More subtle...
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This document was uploaded on 02/26/2014 for the course ECON 560 at UBC.

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