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at thirty shekels.” Leviticus 27:1–4 famous 0.60 Millicent Fawcett, wrote the following story in the Economic Journal in 1918,
related to the tunic maker, John Jones, who became ill but was allowed by the
firm to continue his work at home. As his illness progressed, his wife took over
the work and eventually did it all until his death. ‘When, however, it became quite
clear, John Jones being dead and buried, that it could not be his work, Mrs.
Jones was obliged to own that it was hers, and the price paid for it by the firm
was immediately reduced to two-thirds of that amount paid when it was supposed
to be her husband’s’ (1). little better 0.66 Fortin – Econ 560 Lecture 4B There is also the statement made by an Ontario judge in an equal pay case in
1968 (Beckett vs Sault Ste Marie Police Commission, cited in Gunderson 1975, 140):
‘He being a married man with a family to maintain and support was paid at a rate
somewhat higher than [the plaintiff] who was single and has no family obligations
whatsoever (635) . . . [The plaintiff] was fully aware of the salary she had agreed on (640) .
. . She is not being discriminated against by the fact that she receives a different wage,
different from male constables, for that fact of difference is in accord with every rule of
economics, civilisation, family life and common sense . . . this female member of the force is
undermining the moral of the force. She is a menace to its esprit de corps’ (641). 310 AEA PAPERS AND PROCEEDINGS FIGURE 1. TRENDS IN FEMALE-TO-MALE RATIOS OF
MEDIAN ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FULL-TIME YEAR-ROUND
WORKERS AND HOURLY WAGE RATES Source: O'Neill (2003), United States can only be acquired on the job. In addition,
anticipation of child-related work interruptions
and the need to coordinate home responsibilities
with market work are likely to in uence choice
of occupation and type of rm.
One can argue whether the source of these
gender role differences is a form of discrimination rather than an outcome of biological and
other deeply rooted psychological and cultural
factors. However, by the time they are old
enough to make choices, many women make
different choices than men regarding the extent
of career attachment.
Current data continue to show the strong effect of the presence of children, particularly
young children, on work participation and on
hours of work among those who do work. In
March 2001, at ages 25– 44, the prime period
for career development, 34 percent of women
with children under the age of six were out of
the labor force, compared to 16 percent of
women without children. Thirty percent of employed mothers worked part-time, compared to
11 percent of women with no children. Among
men, however, the presence of children is associated with an increase in work involvement.
Only 4 percent of men with children under the
age of six are out of the labor force, and among
employed fathers only 2 percent work part-time.
The expectation of withdrawals from the labor force and the need to work fewer hours
during the week are likely to in uence the type
of occupations that women train for and ultimately pursue. More subtle...
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