Immigrants and Ethnic Differences

Cation we see that incarceration rates today have

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Unformatted text preview: Revised Population Estimates and nlsy79 Analysis Tables for the Pew Public Safety and Mobility Project” (Harvard University, 2009). cation, we see that incarceration rates today have barely increased since 1980. Incarceration rates have increased among African Americans and whites who have completed high school. Among young African American men with high school diplomas, about one in ten is in prison or jail. Most of the growth in incarceration rates is concentrated at the very bottom, among young men with very low levels of education. In 1980, around 10 percent of young African American men who dropped out of high school were in prison or jail. By 2008, this incarceration rate had climbed to 37 percent, an astonishing level of institutionalization given that the average incarceration rate in the general population was 0.76 of 1 percent. 10 Dædalus Summer 2010 Even among young white dropouts, the incarceration rate had grown remarkably, with around one in eight behind bars by 2008. The signi½cant growth of incarceration rates among the least educated reflects increasing class inequality in incarceration through the period of the prison boom. These incarceration rates provide only a snapshot at a point in time. We can also examine the lifetime chance of incarceration–that is, the chance that someone will go to prison at some point in his or her life. This cumulative risk of incarceration is important if serving time in prison confers an enduring status that affects life chances after returning to free society. The lifetime risk of imprisonment describes how many #1471-ASR 69:2 filename:69201-pettit Source: Western and Petitt (2004) RACE AND CLASS INEQUALITY IN U.S. INCARCERATION—–157 Figure 1. Percentage of Men Admitted to Prison for the First Time (solid line) and Incarcerated (broken line), Blacks and Whites, Aged 18 to 34, 1974 to 1999 methods are used to summarize the mortality experiences of a cohort or in a particular period. The cumulative risk of death, for example, can be calculated by exposing a population to a set of age-specific mortality rates. Life table methods can be applied to other risks including the risk of incarceration. Our estimates are based on multiple-decrement methods in which there are several independent modes of exit from the life table. The analysis allows two competing risks: the risk of going to prison and the risk of death. LIFE TABLE CALCULATIONS Calculations for the cumulative risk of imprisonment require age-specific first-incarceration and mortality rates. The age-specific first-incarI ceration rate, nMx , is the number of people, aged x to x + n, entering prison for the first time, divided by the number of people of that age in the population at risk. Estimating age-specific risks of first incarceration requires: (1) the number of people in age group x to x + n annually admitted to prison for the first time, Downloaded from asr.sagepub.com at University of British Columbia Library on March 13, 2012 Fortin – Econ 560 Lecture 4B They attempt to address the issue of the perverse effect...
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