Calcium ca 1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 4 s 2 20 ca 2

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Unformatted text preview: 6 3s 2 3 p 6 4 s 2 20 Ca 2+ :1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 20 octet in the valence shell How does a sulfur atom achieve “Octet”? sulfur atom 16 S 2 2 6 2 : 1s 2s 2 p 3s 3 p 4 S 2− :1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 16 octet in the valence shell The The octet rule The The Ti2+ is the isoelectronic with the Ca atom. (a) are there any differences between the electron configurations of Ti2+ and Ca? (b) Do any of these configurations corresponding to a noble-gas nobleconfiguration? (c) Will Ca and Ti2+ have the same number of unpaired electrons? In forming ions, the 2 2 6 2 6 2 transition metals lose 20 Ca : 1s 2 s 2 p 3s 3 p 4 s the valence-shell s e2+ 2 2 6 2 6 2 first, then as many d e: 1s 2 s 2 p 3s 3 p 3d 22Ti are required to reach the charge of the ion. Ti : 1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 3d 2 4 s 2 22 Ca 2+ :1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 20 Sizes of atoms and Ions of representative elements Group Group 1A Cation is smaller smaller than the original atom atom Group 2A Group 3A Group Group 6A Group 7A Anion is bigger than the original atom The The Sizes of ions increase from top to bottom in one group The Ionic Bond Ionization energy: the energy required to remove an e from a gaseous atom when the atom is in its ground state. ∆E Na+ ion Na Na atom Cl atom ∆E Cl- ion Electron affinity: the energy change that occurs when an e is added to a gaseous atom or ion. The Period Table The lowest ionization e...
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