W n n i i the the second law of thermodynamics a

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Unformatted text preview: ease in number an number of molecules because any of these changes will increase the possible possible energies of positions and energies of molecules in the system. W = N !/ Π N i ! i The The Second law of thermodynamics “A system and its surroundings spontaneously tend and towards increasing disorder” increasing “Natural direction of the universe tends toward the increasing increasing disorder.” S universe = S system + S surrounding ∆Suniverse = ∆S system + ∆S surrounding ≥ 0 The entropy of the universe: increases in a spontaneous spontaneous equilibrium process and remains unchanged in an equilibrium process. Spontaneous process: (Irreversible) ∆Suniv = ∆Ssys + ∆Ssurr > 0 Equilibrium process: (Reversible) ∆Suniv = ∆Ssys + ∆Ssurr = 0 Third Third law of Thermodynamics The entropy of a pure/ perfect crystalline substance pure/ at absolute zero is zero. absolute zero 0 K , S Pure Crystalline = 0 S = k ⋅ ln W S = k ⋅ ln1 = 0 • Pure Crystalline arrays T = 0 K: Lowest possible entropy entropy state atoms / molecules in orderly Thermal Thermal energy = 0 T...
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