chapter 7 Learning

Mark playing on the monkey bar first you reinforce

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: lever only dispenses food 50% of the time - Interval schedule: a certain amount of time must elapse between reinforcements, regardless of how many correct responses might occur during that time Eg. The lever only dispenses food every minute Psych 1000 My Notes Page 54 Eg. The lever only dispenses food every minute Fixed ­Ratio Schedule - Reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses Eg. FR ­3 means that reinforcement occurs after every third response - Some businesses pay employees for each item produced This results in greater work output than hourly wages Variable ­Ratio Schedule - Reinforcement is given after a variable number of correct responses Eg. VR ­3 means that on average, three responses are required for reinforcement - Produces high rate of responding - Less pausing after reinforcement because the next response might be reinforced - Eg. Gambling Fixed ­Interval Schedule - First correct response that occurs after a fixed time interval is reinforced Eg. FI ­3 means that after a lever is pressed, it will only dispense food again after 3 minutes regardless of how many times the lever is pressed within the 3 minutes Variable ­Interval Schedule - Reinforcement is given for the first response that occurs after a variable time interval Eg. VI ­3 means that on average, there is a 3 minute interval between opportunities to obtain reinforcement - Because availability is less predictable than an FI schedule, te VI schedule produces a steadier response rate - Eg. Pop quizzes because they are given on average every 1 to 2 weeks Partial Reinforcement, Learning, and Extinction - Continuous reinforcement produces more rapid learning than partial reinforcement because the association between behavior and its consequences is easier to perceive Easier to extinguish because the shift to no reinforcement is sudden and easier to perceive - Partial reinforcement is learned more slowly but more difficult to extinguish especially if it's on a variable schedule Since it's unpredictable, it takes longer to learn that it is gone forever - The best way to promote fast learning is to begin by reinforcing the desired behavior on a continuous schedule until it's well established; then move on to partial schedule that is gradually made more demanding Eg. Mark playing on the monkey bar First you reinforce him constantly for playing on the monkey bar Then you gradually decrease the reinforcement until he is willing to play after occasional attention from the teacher EscapeandAvoidanceConditioning - In escape conditioning, organisms learn a response to terminate an aversive stimulus Acquired and maintained through negative reinforcement Putting a sweater on is negatively reinforced by the desirable consequences that you no longer shiver - Avoidance conditioning is when an organism learns a response to avoid an aversive stimulus It...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online