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chapter 7 Learning

Maybe a child will only stop using bad words when

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Unformatted text preview: Reward is used synonymously with positive reinforcement Primary and Secondary Reinforcers - Primary reinforcers are stimuli such as food and water that an organism naturally finds reinforcing because they satisfy biologicla needs - Through association with primary reinforcers, other stimuli can become secondary, or conditioned reinforcers Eg. Money, positive performance feedback, etc Negative Reinforcement - A response is strengthened by the subsequent removal or avoidance of a stimulus The removed stimulus is known as the negative reinforcer Eg. Taking aspirin; headache goes away; increased tendency to take aspirin for headache relief Operant Extinction - Weakening and eventual disappearance of response because it is no longer reinforced Eg. If pressing a lever does not yield food any more, then the rat would eventually stop doing it - Degree of non ­reinforce behavior persisting is called resistance to extinction Low resistance: non reinforced behavior disappears quickly High resistance: non reinforced behavior keeps going - Pascal was a misbehaving child that did not respond to reason, verbal punishment, or physical punishment This is because what Pascal wanted the most was attention Positive Punishment - A response is weakened by the subsequent presentation of a stimulus Child misbehaves; child is beat in the face; child is less likely to do it again - Often produces rapid results - It has important limitations because it does not cause the organism to forget how to make the response - It may not be generalized to general situations Eg. Maybe a child will only stop using bad words when parents are present - Can cause dislike of the person delivering the punishment - Physical punishment can send the message to the recipient that aggression is okay Negative Punishment - A response is weakened by subsequent removal of a stimulus Running a red light; causes a monetary fine; decreased chance of running the light again - Different from operant extinction Operant extinction: the very desired stimulus is removed Negative punishment: removal of some other stimulus that did not cause the behavior Eg. Depriving a misbehaving child of TV; although the TV had nothing to do with the child misbehaving in the first place - It is better than positive punishment because 1. Less likely to create strong fear or hatred toward the punishing agent 2. Punishing agent is not modeling physical aggression so it is not likely to be copied Immediate versus Delayed Consequences - Reinforcement or punishment that occurs immedi...
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