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chapter 7 Learning

Only when a green light is on will food be dispensed

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Unformatted text preview: ately after a behavior has a stronger Psych 1000 My Notes Page 53 - Reinforcement or punishment that occurs immediately after a behavior has a stronger effect than when it is delayed - Delay of gratification: ability to forego an immediate but smaller reward for an delayed but more satisfying one Not having $100 now but getting $200 in a month - Delay of gratification usually develop around preschool years - People who have lesser ability to do so have a less quality of life Eg. Using drugs ShapingandChaining:TakingOneStepataTime - Eg. Getting mark to be more active on the playground Get him to play on the moneky bars Use attention as a positive reinforcer when mark goes to play there You'd have to wait a long time because Mark doesn't go there often - Skinner developed shaping, which involves reinforcing successive approximations toward a final response Reinforce Mark when he stands up, when he walks over to the monkey bars, and finally when he starts playing there This is called the method of successive approximations - Chaining is used to develop a sequence of responses by reinforcing each response with the opportunity to perform the next response Eg. Ringing a bell turns the light above the lever on; when the light is on food will be dispensed; the rat pushes the lever afterwards to release food Usually backwards toward the first response GeneralizationandDiscrimination - Operant generalization is when an operant response occurs to a new antecedent stimulus or situation that is similar to the original one A young child not touching all stovetops after getting burned by one of them - Operant Discrimination means that an operant response will occur to one antecedent stimulus but not another The antecedent stimulus is known as the discriminative stimuli - Operant discrimination training: making an discriminate certain stimuli that it does not discriminate before Eg. Only when a green light is on, will food be dispensed; eventually the rat will only push the lever when a green light is on and has discriminated against the other colors SchedulesofReinforcement - Continuous reinforcement schedule is when every reponse of a particular type is reinforced Every press of the lever results in food pellets Every quarter in the coke machine results in a can of coke - Partial reinforcement is when only some responses are reinforced Can be divided into ratio and interval schedules - Ratio schedules: a certain percentage of responses is reinforced The rat's...
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