chapter 7 Learning

Rattling in the bush caused an attack if the animal

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Unformatted text preview: re the CS Extinct and Spontaneous Recovery - If CS is presented repeatedly in the absence of UCS, then the CR weakens and eventually disappears This is known as extinction - Occasional repairing of CS and UCS are usually required to maintain CR - The key ingredient to extinction is not merely passage of time, but repeated presentation of CS without UCS - Spontaneous recovery is defined as the reappearance of a previously extinguished CR after a rest period Generalization and Discrimination - Once a CR is acquired, organisms often respond not only to the original CS but also to stimulus that are similar to it Greater similarity = greater chance that CR will occur - Generalization: stimuli similar to the initial CS elicit a CR - Stimulus generalization serves critical adaptive functions Eg. Rattling in the bush caused an attack; if the animal cannot generalize it will only respond to an identical rattle in the bush for it to respond - To prevent stimulus generalization from running amok, organisms must be able to discriminate differences between stimuli - Discrimination is demonstrated when a CR occurs to one stimulus but not others Higher ­Order Conditioning - When a neutral stimulus becomes a CS after being paired with an already established CS (fig. 7.8) - It is usually weaker and extinguishes more quickly ApplicationsofClassicalConditioning - - Acquiring and Overcoming Fear John B. Watson Infant Albert was shown a rat which he was not afraid of Albert was afraid of loud noises; loud noises were made as the rat was shown to him Eventually the rat alone made Albert cry Albert became of furry white or grey objects Exposure Therapies is to expose the patient to the feared stimulus (CS) without any (UCS) Systematic desnsitization is patients learn muscle relaxation rechniues and then is graduatlly exposed to the fear ­provoking stimulus Flooding is immediate exposure to the phobic stimulus Conditioned Attraction and Aversion - People become more sexually aroused to various stimuli after those CSs have been paired with sexually arousing UCSs - Aversion therapy attempts to condition an aversion to stimulus that triggers unwanted behavior by pairing it with a noxious UCS Reducing alcoholic's attraction to alcohol, the patient is given a drug that induces nausea when alcohol is consumed Mixed results; often leads to short term effects and extinction over time - Neutral stimuli can acquire favorable or unfavorable meaning by pairing it with other Psych 1000 My Notes Page 51 - Neutral stimuli can acquire favorable or unfavorable meaning by pairing it with other stimuli that laready has a positive or negative attitude OperantConditioning:Learningthroughconsequences - Operant conditioning is not a elicited response that is automatically triggered by some stimulus Thorndike'sLawofEffect - A cat was put into a box with food placed o...
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This document was uploaded on 02/26/2014 for the course PSYCHO 1000 at UWO.

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