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chapter 7 Learning

Exhausted learning not to respond allows the organism

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Unformatted text preview: gists have continued to challenge the behaviorists assumption that learning does not involve mental processes - Social customs also affect how we learn since culture is the man ­made part of the environment Habituation - Habituation is a decrease in the strength of response to a repeated stimulus - It is adaptive because if an organism responded to every stimulus in its environment, it would rapidly become overwhelmed an exhausted Learning not to respond allows the organism to conserve energy and focus its attention on other stimulus - This is different from sensory adaptation because you are still receiving stimuli, except your nervous system has chosen to ignore it ClassicalConditioning:AssociatingOneStimuluswithAnother - Classical conditioning is where an organism learns to associate two stimuli, such that one stimulus comes to produce a response that was originally produced by another stimulus It is a basic form of learning tha toccurs in many animals Involves learning an association between stimuli Pavlov'sPioneeringResearch - Dogs salivate to food, however, after a while, they would salivate to sounds that they heard before they got the food - Classical conditioning alerts organisms to stimuli that signal the impending arrival of an important event BasicPrinciples Acquisition - Refers to the period during which a response is being learned - If you ring a bell to a dog, nothing would happen, because the bell is a neutral stimulus and would not cause salivation - Putting food into a dog's mouth would cause the dog to salivate because it's reflexive Food is an unconditioned stimulus Salivation is an unconditioned response - The tone and the food become paired several times and is known as a learning trial - After several learning trials, the tone is presented by itself and the dog salivates even though there is not food The tone becomes a conditioned stimulus Salivation becomes a conditioned response - Conditioned stimulus must be paired multiple times with a unconditioned stimulus to establish a strong conditioned response - A tone becomes a conditioned stimulus more quickly if greater amounts of food was given afterwards - One trial pairing: CS ­UCS stimulus pairs after one trial - Forward short ­delay pairing: the CS appears first, followed by the UCS with the CS still present; learning occurs most quickly - Forward trace pairing: CS would come on and off, and after then the UCS would be present - Simultaneous pairing: CS and UCS come on together; least effective - Backward pairing: UCS is presented before the CS Psych 1000 My Notes Page 50 - Backward pairing: UCS is presented befo...
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