chapter 7 Learning

Neutral stimuli a light a buzzer and water and also

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Unformatted text preview: is usually hard to extinguish Eg. Emily's snake phobia; she continues to avoid snakes even though the intense pain from her accident is no longer experienced Psych 1000 My Notes Page 55 intense pain from her accident is no longer experienced - Two ­factor theory of avoidance learning Neutral stimulus is paired with UCS so that the neutral stimulus becomes with CS Operant conditioning takes over, fleeing from the light is negatively reinforced by the termination of fear This strengthens and maintains the response - Extinction is difficult because the subject doesn't hang around to see if the CS actually does cause aversive effects Emily is not likely to go near a snake to see if it injures her - Some stimuli (such as snakes) causes phobia more easily than others (rabbits) ApplicationsofOperantConditioning Training Animals - Through shaping and chaining, animals can learn to perform some truly remarkable behaviors Eg. Training bomb sniffing dogs - In air ­sea rescues, pigeons were trained to peck at a key when they see an orange object; 3 pigeons covered a 360 degree view, and the frequency of pecking allows the pilot to pinpoint the rescue location Human Applications: Education, the Workplace, and Beyond - Educational software combines immediate performance feedback and self ­pace learning - The environment is not providing the proper consequences to reinforce the desired behavior - Skinner claims that poor society performance is that the environment is not providing the proper consequences to meet performance goals - Token economies is where desirable behaviors are quickly reinforced with tokens which can be later cashed in for tangible goods - Skinner gave rise to a field called applied behavior analysis which combines a behavioral approach with the scientific method to solve individual and society problems Program implemented to change behavior BiologyandLearning - Martin Seligman's concept of "preparedness" captures the idea that animals aren't willing to perform all behaviors - Preparedness is that through evolution, animals are biologically "prewired" to easily learn behaviors related to their survival as a species ConstraintsonclassicalConditioning:LearnedTasteAversions - Combining the smell and taste of food (CS) with a toxin or some illness producing agent (UCS) can produce a CR called conditioned taste aversion - John Garcia challenged classical conditioning, which assumed that UCS ­CS has to be presented within a short time frame; usually a few seconds However, Garcia showed that animals learned taste aversions even though food (CS) was consumed up to several hours before they become ill - In another experiment, Garcia exposed 3 neutral stimuli: a light, a buzzer, and water and also exposed them to X ­ray which made them sick later on The rat only avoided the water but not the buzzer or t...
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This document was uploaded on 02/26/2014 for the course PSYCHO 1000 at UWO.

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