chapter 7 Learning

Outcome the reinforces the behavior is called the

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Unformatted text preview: utside of it - There is a lever that must be pushed to open the door so the cat can get to the food - The cat first tries pulling on the fence, pacing around, digging in the floor, and eventually stumbled upon the lever by chance and the door opens - Over time, the cat eventually learned that pulling the lever=opening the door Performance improved - The animal did not show insight, but instead learned using trial and error This process is known as instrumental learning - Law of effect stated that in a given situation, a response followed by a satisfying consequence will become more likely to occur Skinner'sAnalysisofOperantConditioning - B.F. Skinner coined Operant behavior which states that an organism operates on its environment in some way - Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is influenced by its consequences - Skinner viewed operant conditioning as a type of natural selection that facilitates an organism's personal adaptation to the environment - Skinner Box: a box with a lever that dispenses food The rat first pushes it accidentally but pushes it more frequently over time - Reinforcement: a response that is strengthened by an outcome that follows it The outcome the reinforces the behavior is called the reinforcer - Punishment: occurs when a response if weakened by outcomes that follow it If the lever causes an electric shock, it will make the rat not want to press it ABCsofOperantConditioning - Skinner's analysis of operant behavior involves 3 kinds of events 1. Antecedents: stimuli that are present before a behavior occurs 2. Behaviors: in which the organism emits 3. Consequences: follows behavior - Relationship between A and B and B and C are called contingencies Differences between classical conditioning and operant conditioning - In classical conditioning the organism learns an association between two stimuli In operant conditioning the organism learns the association between behavior and its consequences - Classical conditioning focuses on elicited behaviors Operant conditioning focuses on emitted behaviors AntecedentConditions:IdentifyingWhentoRespond - If there is a light above the lever in the Skinner Box, and only dispenses food when the light is on, the rat will only press it when the light is on - The light becomes a discriminative Stimulus which signal a particular response Consequences:DeterminingHowtoRespond Positive Reinforcement Psych 1000 My Notes Page 52 Positive Reinforcement - A behavior causes reward and results in increased behavior Eg. Cat presses a lever; food pellets appear; lever pressing increases -...
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