chapter 7 Learning

Outcome the reinforces the behavior is called the

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: utside of it - There is a lever that must be pushed to open the door so the cat can get to the food - The cat first tries pulling on the fence, pacing around, digging in the floor, and eventually stumbled upon the lever by chance and the door opens - Over time, the cat eventually learned that pulling the lever=opening the door Performance improved - The animal did not show insight, but instead learned using trial and error This process is known as instrumental learning - Law of effect stated that in a given situation, a response followed by a satisfying consequence will become more likely to occur Skinner'sAnalysisofOperantConditioning - B.F. Skinner coined Operant behavior which states that an organism operates on its environment in some way - Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is influenced by its consequences - Skinner viewed operant conditioning as a type of natural selection that facilitates an organism's personal adaptation to the environment - Skinner Box: a box with a lever that dispenses food The rat first pushes it accidentally but pushes it more frequently over time - Reinforcement: a response that is strengthened by an outcome that follows it The outcome the reinforces the behavior is called the reinforcer - Punishment: occurs when a response if weakened by outcomes that follow it If the lever causes an electric shock, it will make the rat not want to press it ABCsofOperantConditioning - Skinner's analysis of operant behavior involves 3 kinds of events 1. Antecedents: stimuli that are present before a behavior occurs 2. Behaviors: in which the organism emits 3. Consequences: follows behavior - Relationship between A and B and B and C are called contingencies Differences between classical conditioning and operant conditioning - In classical conditioning the organism learns an association between two stimuli In operant conditioning the organism learns the association between behavior and its consequences - Classical conditioning focuses on elicited behaviors Operant conditioning focuses on emitted behaviors AntecedentConditions:IdentifyingWhentoRespond - If there is a light above the lever in the Skinner Box, and only dispenses food when the light is on, the rat will only press it when the light is on - The light becomes a discriminative Stimulus which signal a particular response Consequences:DeterminingHowtoRespond Positive Reinforcement Psych 1000 My Notes Page 52 Positive Reinforcement - A behavior causes reward and results in increased behavior Eg. Cat presses a lever; food pellets appear; lever pressing increases -...
View Full Document

This document was uploaded on 02/26/2014 for the course PSYCHO 1000 at UWO.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online