chapter 7 Learning

Why we dont get conditioned to random stimuli eg why

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Unformatted text preview: he light This shows that rats are genetically primed to associate sickness and water - In a third experiment, the water, the light, and the buzzer were paired with electric Psych 1000 My Notes Page 56 - In a third experiment, the water, the light, and the buzzer were paired with electric shock The rat avoided the light and the buzzer but did not avoid the water In nature, sights and sounds signal fear ­provoking behavior so this makes sense - Psychologists have created taste aversions in nature Sheep meat was put into sheep hide and was laced with an illness inducing drug; coyotes came and at the fake sheep and became sick; this makes them less likely to eat real sheep and saving their lives AreWeBiologicallyPreparedtoFearCertainThings? - Seligman proposed that humans are biologically prepared to acquire certain fears more readily than others Even though Emily was injured by a car, she became afraid of snakes - In an experiment, when people were shocked while looking a pictures of spiders, snakes and angry faces, they were much more likely to develop a CR to these things - If the picture displayed were flowers, houses, or happy faces, then the CR is much more difficult to be conditioned - We tend to fear things that seem to have a greater evolutionary significance ConstraintsonOperantConditioning:AnimalsThat"Won'tShapeUp" - Sometimes animals simply refused to behave according to the rules of operant conditioning - Instinctive Drift: a conditioned response "drifts back" toward instinctive behavior - Operant learning is contrained by biology LearningandtheBrain - Some brain regions, such as the nucleus accumbens, and certain neurotransmitters, such as dopamine play a key role in regulating the ability to experience reward CognitionandLearning - In operant conditioning there is the stimulus and response - In the cognitive model of learning, the organism's mental representation of the world goes between stimulus and response InsightandCognitiveMaps - Kohler claimed that chimpanzees can learn by insight, the sudden perception of a useful relationship that helps to solve a problem Eg. Chimp stacking boxes to reach a banana - Tolman ran an experiment that first allowed a rat to follow a path from the start to goal (which contains food) Then, many additional paths were given The rat explores these paths briefly, but eventually chose the original, correct path, to get to the food - The rat had developed a cognitive map CognitioninClassicalConditioning - Cognitive theorists believed that the CS linked to the UCS first to produce the response and that the CS does not directly...
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