Chapter 9 thought, language, and intelligence

Determine which procedures and explanations will be

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Unformatted text preview: There are many factors that prevent us from selecting the information needed to draw sound conclusions Distraction by irrelevant information - Eg. A drawer contains 19 black socks and 13 blue socks, how many do you have to pull to get a complete set? The 19 black socks and 13 blue socks are irrelevant. You only need to pull 3 to ensure you have a complete set. Failure to apply deductive principles - We fail to use the knowledge we know to apply to new problems - Eg. Solving Y=mX + b problems When physics students were asked to solve this type of problem in novel mathematical representations, they were less successful because they've only learned to use it in physics problems. Belief Bias - Tendency to abandon logical rules in favor of our own personal beliefs - Factual fallacy does not equate logical fallacy 1. All things that are smoked are good for one's health 2. Cigarettes are smoked 3. Therefore cigarettes are good for one's health - The premise is false, but the logic is perfectly valid ProblemSolving - Comes in 4 stages Understanding, or Framing, the problem - How we mentally, represent, or frame, a problem can make a huge difference in how Psych 1000 My Notes Page 72 - How we mentally, represent, or frame, a problem can make a huge difference in how we solve the problem Eg. Train ­crow anecdote, pg. 369 Generating Potential Solutions 1. Determine which procedures and explanations will be considered 2. Determine which of these solutions are consistent with the evidence that has so far been observed. Rule out any solutions that do not fit the evidence. Testing the Solutions - Consider the remaining solutions and design a test to determine whether it leads to a solution - Eg. Water jug problems pg. 369/370 - People tend to dev...
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