Chapter 9 thought, language, and intelligence

Pavlov observed that all dogs salivate when he ringed

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Unformatted text preview: n's decision? People who were told a treatment is 50% successful will more likely administer the treatment to a family member 50% failure makes the treatment seem more risky ReasoningandProblemSolving - Scientists believe that our capacity for logical thinking has been honed by evolutionary forces because of its adaptive value Psych 1000 My Notes Page 71 evolutionary forces because of its adaptive value - Most primitive form of problem solving is trial and error Reasoning and logic can avert the time consuming and hazardous process of trial and error Reasoning - Deductive reasoning is reasoning from the "top down" People start with general principles assumed to be true and uses that to determine what they imply about a certain situation This is considered a more valid form of reasoning because if the premises are true, so must be the conclusion 1. If all humans are mortals and (premise 1) 2. Socrates is a human (premise 2) 3. Then Socrates must be a mortal (conclusion) - Inductive reasoning is in the bottom up fashion starting with specific facts and trying to develop a general principle Eg. Pavlov observed that all dogs salivate when he ringed the bell; he formulated that to be classical conditioning Can lead to likelihood rather than certainty - In science both approaches are used to prove a theory in a process called hypothetico ­deductive approach Eg. One observes that when many bystanders are present, they often fail to offer help. Scientists formulate a theory that the more bystanders there are, the less likely they are willing to help. This is a form of inductive reasoning. Then, the theory is tested via deductive reasoning via an experiment to test its validity. StumblingBlocksinReasoning -...
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This document was uploaded on 02/26/2014 for the course PSYCHO 1000 at UWO.

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