Chapter 9 thought, language, and intelligence

Chapter 9 thought language and intelligence

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Unformatted text preview: structure (fig. 9.2) - Phonemes: lowest in hierarchy; small units of sounds that are recognized as separate in a given language English has 40 to 50 - Morphemes: above phonemes; smallest unit of meaning in a language One or more phonemes combine into a single morpheme (eg. Telephone) AcquiringaLanguage BiologicalFoundations - Humans are born linguists - Human children, despite their limited thinking skills, begin to master language early in life without any formal instruction Psych 1000 My Notes Page 69 - - in life without any formal instruction Different languages have developed independently in different parts of the world seem to have a common underlying deep structure Infants are born with the ability to vocalize the entire range of phonemes At 6 months of age, infants begin to lose the ability to differentiate sounds that are not in their language Eg. Japanese children lose the ability to distinguish between r and l Linguists claim that there is a sensitive period during which language is most easily learned Usually extends from infancy to puberty Eg. Children who grew up alone or were had parents who neglected them were able to acquire language skills if they were younger; children who are past puberty and does not have a language tend to have more trouble learning a language Sign language follows the same patterns as vocalized language and is acquired in the same manner Sex Differences Broca's area is responsible for speech production Wernicke's area is responsible for speech comprehension Damage in either area can cause aphasia, a disruption in speech comprehension and/or production Men who suffer left hemisphere strokes are more likely to show severe aphasic symptoms than women Suggests that more of women's language is localized in the right hemisphere fMRI studies by Susan Rossell supports this hypothesis SocialLearningProcess - Social learning plays a central role in language acquisition - Motherese: a high pitched voice that mothers tend to use with their children - B. F. Skinner claims that language comes from operant conditioning where parents reinforce correct verbalization Proven to be untrue Children learn too much too fast for o...
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This document was uploaded on 02/26/2014 for the course PSYCHO 1000 at UWO.

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