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Chapter 9 thought, language, and intelligence

University students are intelligent people

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Unformatted text preview: iciently we can categorize our experiences - Language can help enforce stereotypes Eg. Using "he" to refer to mankind in general makes the sentence male biased - English speaking students consistently score lower in mathematical skills such as counting Could be because in Chinese, the language is constructed around the base 10 system In English, numbers such as twelve and eleven does not correlate well with the base 10 system - Propositional thought expresses a statement and takes the form of a verbal sentence that we seem to "hear" in our minds - Imaginal thought consists of images that we can see, hear, or feel in our minds - Motoric thought consists of mental representations of motor movements such as throwing an object ConceptsandPropositions - Much of our thinking takes the propositional form Eg. "University students are intelligent people" - Propositions consists of concepts combined in a particular way 2 types: Subject and predicate - Concepts are the basic units of semantic memory - Many concepts are hard to be defined explicitly but can be defined by prototypes Eg. Vegetables - Using prototypes only requires one to judge the similarities Eg. It would take longer to judge whether a penguin is a bird than if asked whether a sparrow is a bird. This is because sparrows fit better with our conception of a bird while penguins are less so. - Prototypes differ from person to person so there is a degree of arbitrariness and individual difference in prototypic concepts Eg. Definition of a political radical - Do how a proposition is stated affect how we solve problems? Eg. If a cancer treatment is said to be "50% successful" as opposed to "50% failure", would it make a difference on a perso...
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