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Chapter 9 thought, language, and intelligence

# Writing a paper break is down into several areas such

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Unformatted text preview: elop a mental set, a tendency to stick to solutions that have worked in the past; this can lead to less effective problem solving Evaluating the Results - "Is there an easier or more effective way to accomplish the same objective?" Problem Solving Schemas - Problem solving schemas are like mental blue prints, or step by step scripts for selecting information and solving specialized classes of problems Eg. Social interaction, cooking, etc. We know what to do without having to engage in formal problem solving procedures - Chessmaster Gary Kasparov can regularly defeat computers because of his complex mental schemas - Experts have great many schemas to guide them in problem solving in their field - Neurons and brain function changes as one becomes an expert at something Algorithms and Heuristics - Algorithms are formulas or procedures that automatically generate correct solutions - Eg. If you want to find all the combination of letters in an anagram, there would be 40,320 possibilities - Heuristics are general problem solving strategies that we apply to certain classes of situations Mental shortcuts that may or may not provide correct solutions Eg. Using general word construction principles to recombine anagrams - Means ­Ends analysis is an example of heuristics where one identifies differences between the present situation and one's desired state and make changes to reduce these differences Eg. Goal is to write a 30 page paper at the end of the term. Presently 0 pages are written. How to reduce this difference? - Subgoal analysis is when you break large problems into subunits/intermediate steps Eg. Writing a paper Break is down into several areas such as choosing a topic, doing research, making a general outline, writing a first draft, and editing Uncertainty, Heuristics, and Decision Making - Typically decisions are made that has a high probability of a positive outcome - We apply certain heuristics to form judgments of likelihood The Representativeness Heuristic - Used to infer how closely something or someone fits our prototype for a particular concept and therefore how closely they are a member of that class Availability Heuristics - C...
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