chapter 8 memory

freuds repression theory has been hard to

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Unformatted text preview: moryDistortionandSchemas - When a group of English men were told a native story and were asked to retell it 20 hours later, they reconstructed it in a way that makes sense to them The word canoe was replaced with boat The ghost that was helping the narrator is now the enemy The narrator, instead of going seal hunting, is going fishing instead - The story changed to fit the English culture - People remember generalized ideas (schemas), but we use our preexisting schemas to fill in the gap - Advertisers often take advantage of this effect Advertisers may hint at something, but not claim it directly, so the viewer's previous schemas can fill in the gap Listerine example Psych 1000 My Notes Page 66 Listerine example - Students consistently display boundary extension when drawing pictures from memory They picture the scene as having a wider angle than it really was TheMisinformationEffectandEyewitnessTestimony - The misinformation effect is the distortion of a event by misleading post ­event information This has relations to mistaken eyewitness testimony - For example, when witnesses were asked to identify a criminal, they go for the one that looks like their image of a criminal The actual criminal may appear gentlemanly and kind, and our schemas would deceive us in this scenario - The eye witness account is affected by how the question is phrased Eg. When asked how fast a car was going during the time of collision Using the words smashed resulted in an estimated speed of 65.3km/h, while using the word contact resulted in an estimated speed of (50.9km/h) Confusing the Source - Misinformation often occur because of source confusion Eg. If we see a mugshot of a stranger and then asked to pick out the criminal in a lineup, we are likely to pick the one in the mugshot that we saw This is because we are not sure where we encountered the person, but they look familiar - In a similar experiment, 29% of people identified an innocent suspect after being exposed to several misleading statements Other Factors in Eyewitness Testimony - Blood alcohol level of 0.10 results in less information being recalled and less accurate information 1 week after - Identification based on voice seems to be less accurate than those based on both visual and auditory cues or visual cues alone The"RecoveredMemory"Controversy:RepressionorReconstruction? - When a memory is forgotten, but spontaneously remembered again, is it accurate? Is it caused by repression as Freud suggested or some other psychological process? What caused the memory to be forgotten for so long? - Freud's repression theory has been hard to demonstrate experimentally and other researchers propose that it could be just because of ordinary (non ­motivated) sources of forgetting - Retrograde amnesia can occur after a traumatic event A child may not remember the violent deaths of his/her parents -...
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