chapter 8 memory

Seeing a picture triggers memories of that person

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Unformatted text preview: ong term memory Declarative and Procedural Memory - Declarative memory involves factual knowledge, and includes two subcategories Episodic memory is our store of factual knowledge concerning personal experiences Semantic memory represents general factual knowledge about the world and language - Procedural Memory is reflected in skills and actions Expressed by doing things such as typing, riding a bike, or playing a musical instrument Classical conditioned responses are considered procedural Explicit and Implicit Memory - Explicit memory involves conscious or intentional memory retrieval - Recognition requires to decide whether a stimulus is familiar - Recall involves spontaneous memory retrieval Cued recall is when hints are given to stimulate memory Eg. If you can't remember hat, and one says it rhymes with hat, then bat is a cue - Implicit Memory occurs when memory influences our behavior without conscious awareness Eg. Edouard Claperede (anemic) was offered to shake hands with a scientist who held a pin in his hand She has no recollection of the event but refuses to shake the experimenter's hand again Retrieval:AccessingInformation - A retrieval cue is any stimulus, whether internal or external, that stimulates the activation of information stored in long term memory Eg. Seeing a picture triggers memories of that person TheValueofMultipleandSelf ­GeneratedCues - A group of students were asked to read a list of 504 words and make 1 or 3 word Psych 1000 My Notes Page 63 - A group of students were asked to read a list of 504 words and make 1 or 3 word associations for them - They were asked to recall them later after seeing the association words that they made Some were shown their won associations, others were shown the associations of other people People who saw their own cues Students who had 1 word recalled 61% of the words Students who had 3 words recalled 91% People who saw other peoples' cues Students who had 1 word recalled 11% Students who had 3 words recalled 55% - This shows that having multiple self generated cues was the most effective method for maximizing recall TheValueofDistinctiveness - If one word in a list does not fit in, it is distinctive, and you are more likely to recall that word - It is helpful to associate information with things that are personally meaningful to oneself FlashbulbMemory:FoggingUpthePicture - Flashbulb memories are recollections that seem very vivid like snapshots of a moment in time - We are easily recalled, but they are not necessarily accurate Students were asked to write down what their memory of 911 was like and they were brought back 3 years later to write the experience again 1/4 of them had completely different memories Those who had stronger emotional response reported to have better memory Among students who had terrible recall, 61% of them were highly confident of their memories Context,State,andMoodEffectsonMemory - The encoding specificity principle states that memory is enhanced when conditions present during retrieval...
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This document was uploaded on 02/26/2014 for the course PSYCHO 1000 at UWO.

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