chapter 8 memory

Lot in the first interval but it slows down as time

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Unformatted text preview: match those that were present during encoding Eg. The jogger was in shock could not remember the rape, but after jogging through the same place, she remembered it vividly Context ­Dependent Memory: Returning to the Scene - External cues lead us to context ­dependent memory - Its easier to remember something in the same environment in which it was acquired Eg. Victims of crimes are taken back to the crime scene to better stimulate recollection of the event State ­Dependent Memory: Arousal, Drugs, and Mood - Our ability to retrieve information is greater when our internal state at the time of retrieval matches our original state during learning The jogger who was raped, rapidly remembered the rape while she was jogging through the same place again Her state of jogging helped her remember the incident - Eg. People who read while running the treadmill recalls the material better when running on the treadmill again, so it's not very good for tests, which are taken at rest - If you are remembering something while being under the influence of drugs, recall is poorer when one is not using the drug - Mood ­congruent recall: We tend to recall information or events that are congruent with our current mood Psych 1000 My Notes Page 64 with our current mood When we are happy we are more likely to remember positive events Forgetting TheCourseofForgetting - Hermann Ebbinghaus studied himself in a memory test - He created over 2,000 nonsense syllables that he tried to memorize himself - He used a method called relearning If he learned a list of words that took him 20 trials, learning it a week later would only take him half as many trials - He studied the intervals of forgetting and came up with the forgetting curve One forgets a lot in the first interval, but it slows down as time goes on WhyDoWeForget? Encoding Failure - Sometimes we fail in encoding information from the short term memory into the long term memory - There is too much stimuli and we do not commit to all of them deeply enough to remember them all - Eg. People watched sexual, violent, and neutral shows, and 9 commercials were put into between Those who watched the sexual or violent shows remembered the commercials less than those who watched the neutral shows because they were a lot more preoccupied with the content of their shows Decay of the Memory Trace - Decay Theory: with time and disuse, the physical memory traces in the nervous system fades away This theory was disfavored because no one know what physical memory traces were - Some neural circuits change as long term memories are formed - Decay theory's prediction that the longer the interval of disuse between learning and recall, the less would be recalled - Sometimes though, when a list of words were memorized, more was recalled during the second trial This is called reminiscence, which is inconsistent with the concept that a memory trace decays over time Interference, Retrieval Failure, and the Tip ­of ­the ­Tongue - According to the interfere...
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