chapter 8 memory

Set schemas and expert knowledge acquiring expert

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Unformatted text preview: e the amount of raw information to be remembered but reorganizes information into meaningful units Visual Imagery - Information stored in long term memory is stored in 2 forms: verbal codes and nonverbal codes - Dual coding theory is encoding memory information using both codes help improve memory Eg. Firetruck and light bulb appeals to both verbal and nonverbal codes because they can be visualized; however jealousy and knowledge can only be encoded verbally - In the Method of Loci, you take a distinct sequence of landmarks in a familiar location to associate with something you want to memorize HowPriorKnowledgeShapesEncoding Schemas: Our Mental Organizers - A schema is a "mental framework" about some aspect of the world such as a class of people, events, situations, or objects - Schemas create a context for remembering things and holds the information you perceive into a unified set Schemas and Expert Knowledge - Acquiring expert knowledge can be viewed as a process of developing schemas  ­ mental frameworks  ­ that help encode information Eg. When 3 chess players ranging from beginner to expert skill level were asked to reconstruct the game board of 25 pieces after looking at it for 5 seconds If it was constructed in a situation that might actually occur in a game The expert was able to remember 16 pieces The intermediate 8 The beginner only 4 If it was constructed completely randomly the skill levels of the players didn't mean shit - When chess pieces were constructed in meaningful patterns, the advanced player could apply well developed schemas to recognize patterns and group pieces together The intermediate and novice players could not construct meaningful chunks as Psych 1000 My Notes Page 62 The intermediate and novice players could not construct meaningful chunks as effectively Storage:RetainingInformation MemoryasaNetwork Associative Networks - A massive network of associated ideas and concepts - Each node is connected to what you already know - When you think about something like fire engine, there is a spreading activation of related concepts throughout the network - Priming refers to the activation of one concept by another Eg. Fire engine primes the node for red Neural Networks - Has nodes that are linked to on another - In a neural network each concept is represented by a particular pattern or set of nodes that become activated simultaneously Eg. When node 4 and 10 fire, you get one thought when nodes 4 and 15 fire you get another thought - The neural network models are often called parallel distributed processing model TypesofLong ­TermMemory - Many scientists believe that we have different systems of l...
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This document was uploaded on 02/26/2014 for the course PSYCHO 1000 at UWO.

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