chapter 2 Research methods

Stressintelligencescientistsdevelopanoperational

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Unformatted text preview: edictions o Incorporatesexistingfactsandobservationswithinasinglebroadframework o Itistestable o Predictionsmadeintheoryaresupportedbyfutureresearch o Itconformstothelawofparsimony:iftwotheoriesexplainandpredictthesame phenomena,thesimpleroneispreferred Evenisatheoryissupportedbymanysuccessfulpredictions,itisneverregardedasanabsolute truthbecausefuturefindingsmaydisproveit Psych 1000 My Notes Page 6 truthbecausefuturefindingsmaydisproveit Defining and Measuring Variables  ­ Avariableisanycharacteristicthatcandiffer  ­ Sincemanyvariablesarenonmaterial(eg.Stress,intelligence),scientistsdevelopanoperational definition:whichtranslatesanabstracttermintosomethingobservableandmeasurable o Eg.Measuringexamstressandacademicperformance  ­ Althoughnoteveryonewillagreewiththeoperationaldefinition,itletsothersknowwhatisbeing tested SelfReportMeasures  ­ Itaskspeopletoreportontheirownknowledge,beliefs,feelings,experiences,orbehavior  ­ Dependsonpeopleswillingnesstorespondhonestly  ­ Subjectsmaybedistortedbysocialdesirabilitybias:thetendencytogiveagoodimpressionrather thanreflectonhowtheytrulyfeelorbehave  ­ Toavoidthisphenomena,questionscanbedesignedtoemphasizetheirpositivequalitiesrather thantheirnegativeones  ­ Alternatively,over ­claimingquestionnaireisusedwhichusesnonexistentitemstoandthe subjectsfamiliaritywiththemtomeasuretheirhonesty ReportsbyOthers  ­ Wecanlearnaboutthesubjectsbasedonobservationfromwitnesses PhysiologicalMeasures  ­ Scientistscanusedheartrate,bloodpressure,respirationrate,andhormonalsecretionsto measurewhatishappeningtothesubject  ­ However,howthesephysiologicalsignscanbeinterpretedinmanyways BehavioralObservations  ­ Thisistomeasurepeople’sovert(directlyvisible...
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This document was uploaded on 02/26/2014 for the course PSYCHO 1000 at UWO.

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