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chapter 3 Biological foundations

Drugscaneitherblockthereuptakeofserotoninmeaningthatit

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Unformatted text preview: aneuronuntilitisdeactivatedwhichoccursin2 ways 1. Deactivatedbyotherchemicalslocatedinthesynapticspacethatbreakthemdown intotheirchemicalcomponents 2. Reuptake:reabsorptionintothepresynapticaxon  ­ Drugsinfluenceneurotransmittersbyeithermimickingtheeffectofaneurotransmitteror preventingothertransmittersaccesstothesereceptors o Eg.Opiatesandnicotinemimicktheeffectofnaturaltransmitters SpecializedTransmitterSystems  ­ Thereareabout100to150differencesubstancesthataresuspectedneurotransmittersinthe brain o Varioussystemsinthebrainonlyrecognizecertainchemicalmessengers,theyareimmune fromthemessagesfromothersystems  ­ Table3.1:Importantneurotransmittersandtheireffects  ­ Acetylcholineisimportantinmemoryandmuscleactivity;underproductionmaybeanimportant  ­ Achisalsoanexcitatorytransmitterthatactivatemusclecells o Botulism(fromimproperlycannedfoods)blocktheactionofAchwhichresultsinparalysis o BlackwidowspiderscausesalotofAChtobeproduced,whichcancausemuscle convulsionsandpossibledeath  ­ InParkinson’sdisease,agroupofdopamineproducingneuronsdegenerateanddie Psych 1000 My Notes Page 15  ­ InParkinson’sdisease,agroupofdopamineproducingneuronsdegenerateanddie  ­ Schizophreniaistreatedbydrugsthatpreventdopaminefromhavingitseffects  ­ Depressionisinvolvedinanabnormalsensitivitytoserotonin,aneurotransmitterthatinfluences mood,eating,sleep,andsexualbehavior  ­ Drugscaneitherblockthereuptakeofserotonin(meaningthatitwillbebindedatthe postsynapticterminalforalongertime)orinhibittheactivityofenzymesinthesynapticspace thatdeactivateserotonin  ­ Endorphinsareagroupofneurotransmittersthatreducepainandincreasefeelingsofwellbeing o Theopiategroupbindtothesamereceptorswhichproducesimilarpsychologicaleffects  ­ Neuromodulatorsincreaseordecreasethesensitiv...
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