chapter 3 Biological foundations

Peoplewithdamagetothispartseemoblivioustothefuturecons

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Unformatted text preview: ry movementislost o Parkinsonscausehandshaking,thenjerkymovementsthatcanonlybeperformedwhen initiatedbyapush,andfinallyparalysisoccurs Thehypothalamusplaysaroleincontrollingsexualbehavior,temperatureregulation,eating, drinking,aggression,andtheexpressionofemotion o Eg.Destructionofonepartofthehypothalamuscanleadtoimpotence o Eg.Damagetoanotherpartcausesextremeovereating o Partsofthehypothalamusproduceasubstancecalledorexinsthatstimulateeating Thelimbicsystemhaveanimportantpartnershipwiththehypothalamusandhelpstocoordinate behaviorneededtosatisfymotivationalandemotionalurges o Eg.Damagetothissystemwouldcauseyoutobeunabletocarryoutorganizedsequences ofactionstosatisfyyourneeds o Twomajorstructuresarethehippocampusandtheamygladala o Hippocampusisinvolvedinformingandretrievingmemories,damagetothisareacancause severememoryimpairmentforrecentevents o Theamygdalaorganizesemotionalresponsepatterns,particularlythoselinkedto aggressionandfear Stimulationinsomepartscauseaggressivepostureandbehavior,whilestimulationin otherpartscausefearandtheinabilitytoact Itcanproduceemotionalresponseswithoutthehighercentresofthebrainknowing thatweareemotionallyaroused PeterOldsandPeterMilneralsoconcludedthatitisthepleasurecenterofthebrain Theyputelectrodesintheamygdalaandwitnessedthattheratwoulddoalot tobeelectricallystimulatedthere Electricalstimulationofthehypothalamusactivatesaxonsthatgoestothe limbicstructureiscalledthenucleusaccumbens The Cerebral Cortex: Crown of the Brain  ­  ­  ­  ­  ­ Thecerebralcortexisagreysheetofcellsthatformtheoutermostlayerofthehumanbrain Itisperhapsthemostdistinguishingpartofthehumanbody Peoplewholackitlacktheabilityofadvancedthinking Thecerebralcortexhasmanyfissuresandtheydivideupthemanypartsofthebrain...
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