chapter 3 Biological foundations

Someanestheticsworkbyblockingoutthesignalsascendingtot

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Unformatted text preview: d  ­ Somesimplestimulus ­responsesequences,knownasspinalreflexes,canbetriggeredatthespinal cordwithoutbraininvolvement Psych 1000 My Notes Page 16  ­  ­  ­  ­  ­  ­  ­  ­  ­ cordwithoutbraininvolvement o Eg.Touchingaheatsource TheBrain Itisa3poundorganthatmakesupwhoyouareandconsumesthemostenergyofallbodyorgans Thebrainneverrests UnlockingtheBrain Neuropsychologicaltests Thismeasurestheverbalandnon ­verbalbehavioursthatareknowntobeaffectedbyparticular typesofbraindamage Destructionandstimulationtechniques Researcherscanproducebraindamageundercontrolledconditionsinanimalstoseewhatthe consequencesare Theycanalsostimulatetheneuronstodotheopposite ElectricalRecording Researchersuseelectroencephalogram(EEG) activity o Itcanbeusedtodetectabnormalelectricalpatternsinthebrain BrainImaging CTscansuseX ­raytechnologytostudybrainstructures o AfocusedbeamofX ­raytakespicturesofnarrowslicesofthebrain o ItisfarmoresensitivethantraditionalX ­rayprocedures PETscansmeasurebrainactivitysuchasmetabolism,bloodflow,andneurotransmitteractivity o Thebrainusesglucoseforenergy,andwhentheyaremoreactive,theyconsumemore glucose o Radioactiveglucoseisinjectedintothebloodstreamwhereittravelstothebrain o TheenergytransmittedbytheradioactivesubstanceismeasuredbythePETscan Magneticresonanceimaging o Canbeusedtostudybothbrainstructuresandbrainactivity o bodyareexposedtoauniformmagneticfield The Hierarchical Brain: Structures and Behavioral Functions  ­ Thecrowningfeatureofthebrainisthecerebrum  ­ Ithas3majordivisions:thehindbrain,themidbrain,andtheforebrain TheHindbrain  ­ Asthespinalcordentersthebrain,itenlargestoformstruc...
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