chapter 3 Biological foundations

Thecerebralcortexisagreysheetofcellsthatformtheoutermo

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Unformatted text preview: turesthatcomposestalklikebrain stem Brainstem:lifesupportsystems  ­ Themedullaplaysanimportantroleinvitalbodyfunctionssuchasheartrateandrespiration  ­ Mostofthesensoryandmotornervescrossoverwithinthemedulla,sotheleftsidecontrolsthe rightandtherightcontrolstheleft  ­ Theponslieabovethemedullaandservesasabridgecarryingnerveimpulsesbetweenhigher andlowerlevelsofthenervoussytem o Italsoregulatesdreams  ­ The cerebellumconsistsofmainlygreymatterandisconcernedprimarilywithmuscular movementcoordination o Itregulatescomplexrapidlychangingmovementsthatrequireexquisitetiming TheMidbrain  ­ Containsclustersofsensoryandmotorneurons  ­ Itcontainsanimportantrelaycentreforthevisualandauditorysystems  ­ Italsocontrolseyemovements  ­ Thereticularformationactsasasentrythateitherblocksmessagesorallowsthemtopass Itasanascendingpartwhichsendsinputtohigherregionsofthebrain Psych 1000 My Notes Page 17  ­  ­  ­  ­  ­ o Itasanascendingpartwhichsendsinputtohigherregionsofthebrain o Italsohasadescendingpartwhichhigherbraincenterscaneitheradmitorblockout sensoryinput o Eg.Someanestheticsworkbyblockingoutthesignalsascendingtothebrain o Eg.Electricalstimulationofsomepartsofthereticularformationcanproduceinstantsleep andwakefulnessinanimals TheForebrain Mostprofounddifferencebetweenpeopleandanimalsisthesizeandcomplexityoftheforebrain (cerebrum) Thethalamusisanimportantsensoryrelaystationthatroutessignalstoappropriatepartsofthe brain o Damagetothethalamuscancauseconfusionanddisorderedattentioninthevictims (schizophrenia) Thebasalgangliaiscriticalforvoluntarymotorcontrol(asopposedtoreflexive,andautomated controlofthecerebellum) o Eg.InParkinson’sDisease,theneuronsthatsupplydopaminetothebasalganglia degenerateanddie,thebasalgangliamalfunctionsandtheabilitytoinitiatevolunta...
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