chapter -4 Behavioural Genetics

Theenjoymentofrollercoastersmaybebasedhowrobusttheinne

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Unformatted text preview: avemoresimilarIQthanadoptive parentsandtheiradoptedchild BiologicalReactionRange,Environment,andIntelligence - Reactionrange:forageneticallyinfleuncedtraitistherangeofpossibilities ­ theupper andlowerlimits ­ thatthegeneticcodeallows - Geneticvariationscannotbemeasureddirectly,butstudiesshowthatitcouldbe15to20 pointsontheIQscale - Eg.Figure4.6 BehaviorGeneticsandPersonality - Personalitytraitssuchasextraversion ­introversionreflectdifferencesinbrainarousal - Certainbehaviorssuchasnoveltyseekinghasbeenlinkedtogenesthataffectthelevels Psych 1000 My Notes Page 23 - Certainbehaviorssuchasnoveltyseekinghasbeenlinkedtogenesthataffectthelevels ofdopamine - Variationamongindividualsoneachpersonalitytraitcanbedividedinto3components 1. Variationattributabletogeneticfactors 2. Variationduetoasharedfamilyenvironmentamongthoserearedtogether 3. Variationattributabletootherfactors,suchasuniqueindividualexperiences - Theenvironmenthadlittleinfluenceonidenticaltwinsrearedapart - Theindividual'suniqueexperience,school,socialinteractions,accountedforasignificant portionofthevariation - Asurveywasdoneontwinsshowedthatthehighestheritabilitycoefficientswere attitudestowardsreadingbooks,abortion,playingorganizedsports,ridingrollercoasters, anddeathpenalty Theremaynotbegenesdirectlyinfluencingthesebehavior Eg.Theenjoymentofrollercoastersmaybebasedhowrobusttheinnerearis Geneticinfluencesmayalsoinfluencealcoholabuse,personalitiesdisorders EvolutionandBehavior - EvolutionaryPsychologyseekstounderstandhowbehavioralabilitiesandtendencies haveevolvedoverthecourseofhalfmillionyears - Biologicallybasedmechanismsreceiveinputfromtheenvironment,processthe information,andrespondstoittocreatebehavior Eg.Thewolfhowlallowsthewolftocommunicateoveralongdistanceandstay awayfromcompetingwolfpacks Thisallowsthewolftosurvivebycreatingmechanismsthatallowthisbehavior Inhumans,aggression,altruism,andsexrolesareexamplesofevolvedmechanisms EvolutionofAdaptiveMechanisms - Evolutionisachangeovertimeinthefrequencywithwhichparticulargenesoccurwithin aninterbreedingpopulation - Somegeneticvariationscomefrommutation NaturalSelection - Characteristicsthatincreasethe...
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